Category Archives: Europe

The secession process led to the complete collapse of the Soviet Union, which was formally dissolved in December 1991 after the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev. In addition to the states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the same independent republics of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan were established on their former territory. Twelve of these 15 successor states associated themselves in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which, however, due to numerous conflicts of interest between its member states, could at no time meet the expectations placed in it.

At the beginning of 2015, the CIS still had 10 members with a total of around 220 million residents.

The new governments of the former Eastern Bloc countries quickly opened their countries to the market economy and sought integration into NATO and the EU. In 1991 the Warsaw Pact was formally dissolved. Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary joined NATO in 1999, followed by Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia in 2004. In the course of the so-called eastward enlargements I and II, all countries mentioned also became members of the European Union, most recently (on January 1, 2007) Romania and Bulgaria and and (on July 1, 2013) Croatia.

The European Union (EU) is by far the most important association of states in Europe. With the Treaty of Rome between France, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, the European Economic Community (EEC) was established in 1951 and 1958, respectively. In 1967 it became part of the European Community (EC) through a merger treaty, which Great Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Portugal and Spain also joined between 1973 and 1986. For more information about the continent of Europe, please check

Seville, Spain

The capital of Andalusia, Seville, is a peculiar, colorful and beautiful city with the most exciting bullfighting and the most passionate flamenco. Like no other city, it reflects the features of the national Spanish character. And being the center of Andalusia, Seville is also a place of endless celebrations. Note: according to allcitypopulation, the population… Read More »

Gouda, Netherlands

Well-known to every Russian, the variety of cheese may actually have very little to do with this city in the western Netherlands. Nevertheless, Gouda got its name from him. In addition to cheese, this medium-sized town in South Holland boasts pipes and a beautiful 15th-century Town Hall. Although, to the credit of the city, it… Read More »

Sights of Mons, Belgium

The Walloon city of Mons is better known to us as Mons. The city of almost one hundred thousand is the capital of the province of Hainaut. Bergen is located about fifty kilometers south of Brussels, more than an hour and a half drive from Breda and more than two hours drive from Utrecht. Bergen… Read More »

Sights of Ibiza, Spain

According to CITYPOPULATIONREVIEW, the island of Ibizabelongs to the Balearic archipelago, located east of mainland Spain. Ibiza is internationally known for its nightlife, wellness culture and appeal to the international jet set. Ibiza has something to offer for every type of holidaymaker, although the relatively high prices compared to other Spanish destinations still put off… Read More »

Natural Conditions of Russia

Russia can be divided into five main physical-geographic regions: the East European Plain, extending from the western borders of Russia to the Urals, the Ural Mountains themselves, the West Siberian Plain between the Urals and the Yenisei, the Central Siberian Highlands – the area between the Yenisei and Lena rivers – and the mountainous regions… Read More »

Saxony-Anhalt Travel Tips

The most beautiful cities in Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg City ​​on the Elbe Magdeburg is the state capital of Saxony-Anhalt and has some great sights to offer. The city’s magnificent cathedral and its beautiful forecourt make for a great photo opportunity. But the Hundertwasserhaus and the Johanneskirche are also great attractions in Magdeburg. Halle on the Saale… Read More »

Lugo, Galicia (Spain)

According to PETWITHSUPPLIES, the city of Lugo is the administrative center of the province of the same name, which is part of the autonomous region of Galicia. It is located in northwestern Spain on the banks of the Minho River. The city was founded in the 1st century BC. Romans and bore the name “Lucus… Read More »

Pudozh, Russia

In the eastern part of the republic is the city of Pudozh. It stands on the banks of the Vodla River, 25 km from its confluence with Lake Onega. You can get to Pudozh from Petrozavodsk on a comet along Lake Onega. For the first time, Pudozhskaya Sloboda was mentioned in chronicles under 1382, as… Read More »

Sights of Turkey

Turkey attracts tourists with a large number of natural and man-made wonders. Magic landscapes, extraordinary places, exclusive monuments of the Byzantine and Ottoman eras – the list includes dozens of interesting sights. Here you will learn about the most popular “highlights” of the Republic of Turkey, which we recommend visiting if you have chosen trips… Read More »

Entertainment in Abkhazia

The main entertainment of Abkhazia is the beaches, and especially popular ones have standard entertainments like catamaran rentals, etc. However, many people go to Abkhazia for sights and museums – after all, there are so many of them in this amazing country that you definitely won’t see half of them in one visit. Attractions Sukhum… Read More »

Austria Attractions

Children and families Whether diaper-changing courses on child-friendly slopes such as in the Serfaus-Fiss-Ladis ski areas, in the SkiWelt Wilder Kaiser/Brixental or in Lungau or whether holiday camps where the offspring can learn foreign languages, climb or experience adventure, Austria has a lot to offer children. Children’s hotels are very popular with families. Interesting for… Read More »

Latvian Literature

From the origins to the 18th century The history of Latvian literature begins with the vast heritage of oral culture represented by the dainas, popular songs, which were sung in the pagan Baltia (Baltic cultural and linguistic area), in Livonia as in Lithuania, before Europe saw the birth of troubadours, the Minnesänger, Dante and G.… Read More »

Iceland Literature in the 1980’s

Even in the last decades they coexist and intertwine – thematically and formally, outside schools or literary groups – proud fidelity to the indigenous tradition, will to break, anxious search, beyond national horizons, for new models and different expressive techniques. The prestigious position that literature has in the country intact, and close contact with the… Read More »

The First Monuments of Italian Literature

In Bologna, where the new civil and political life was intense and at the glorious Studio, readers and schoolchildren flocked from all over Italy and beyond the Alps, the high lyric of love, of which the Sicilians had elaborated the language and metric on the void of thought and Guittone reinvigorated the style with a… Read More »

Saint Barthelemy (France) Overview

Saint Barthelemy (Saint-Barthélemy in French; also St Barth) is an island in the Caribbean Sea 175 km north of the Guadeloupe archipelago (17 ° 54 ′ North 62 ° 50 ′ West). Administratively is a commune of Guadalupe, although the 6 of Decemberof 2003 residents voted to become a separate territory of Guadeloupe, near the French side of St. Martin. Its surface area is 25,500 ha… Read More »

Russia History

Russia is the common name [2] of a country in Europe and Asia, which until 1991 was part of the Soviet Union (USSR). [3] Its official name is the Russian Federation. [4] The territory it occupies is the largest in the world. It has a surface area of 17,075,400 square kilometers, with a wide diversity of climatic zones and geographic regions. The land area of… Read More »

Republic of South Ossetia

The Republic of South Ossetia is a territory located in the Asian region of the Caucasus. Республикӕ Хуссар Ирыстон (Respublikae Xussar Iryston) in the Ossetian language ; Республика Южная Осетия (Respublika Yuzhnaya Ossetia) in Russian language ; სამხრეთ ოსეთი (Samjreti Oseti) in Georgian language. During the time of the Soviet Union it was the Autonomous Region (Oblast) of South Ossetia within the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1989, while the… Read More »

Republic of Malta History

Republic of Malta. It is located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, about 90 km from the southern coast of Sicily, and together with Gozo and Comino, it forms the Maltese archipelago, a strategic point in the eastern Mediterranean. The Republic of Malta had its first independent government in 1961. In 1964 he joined the countries that make up the United Nations.… Read More »

Prague, Czech Republic History

History The first vestiges in the place that Prague occupies today date from the Paleolithic. The first stable settlement is considered to have been that of the Celtic tribe, around the 6th century BC. of Christ and settled south of present-day Prague. The town was called Závist. Later this tribe was replaced by the Germanic people and… Read More »

Poland Country Overview

Poland. Officially, the Polish Republic or the Republic of Poland. Country located in Central Europe that is part of the European Union (EU) and NATO. Poland, from the Polish term of Polska, was the name of the Polanie tribes, it comes from “pole / pola”, field (area of fields), due to the plains of Poland, they were then, the residents of the fields. According to,… Read More »

Paris, France History

Antiquity: under the sign of the Gauls Although the site of Paris has been occupied by man since 5000 BC. n. and., the history of the city really begins to be written in 250 a. n. and.. At that time, the Gallic tribe of the Parisii decided to settle on the current Ile de la Cité, a strategic point… Read More »

Paris, France Culture

In 2015, the city of Paris – within the administrative limits – had an estimated population of 2.19 million residents.However, during the 20th century, the Paris metropolitan area expanded beyond the limits of the commune, and It became the second largest in Europe: in 2013 it had an estimated population of 10.6 million. The Paris region (Ile… Read More »

Oslo, Norway History

History According to, Oslo was founded by King Harald Hardrade in approximately 1048 AD but in its beginnings it was not one of the first cities in importance of the country since the flourishing and consolidated commercial city of Bergen and the religious capital called Nidaros far exceeded it in expansion and development. In 1314 King Haakon V, who was the first monarch to permanently reside in the city, was the… Read More »

Romania Popular Literature and Folk Arts

Popular literature. In relation to the holidays there are the colinde, very common, especially in the countryside, from Christmas Eve until the New Year. Groups of boys and young men go from house to house to sing the colinda, which, in addition to the usual wishes, includes epic parts, sometimes borrowed from apocryphal popular literature.… Read More »

Religion and Education in Hamburg, Germany

Religion: Around 27% of the population belong to the Protestant regional church, 11% to the Catholic church. The Hamburg Jewish Community, located under the umbrella of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, has 3,500 members (approx. 0.19% of the population). Evangelical Regional Church is the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany (Sprengel Hamburg and Lübeck);… Read More »

Stonehenge and Stourhead, U.K.

Stonehenge On many trips to Great Britain, the English south coast with the seaside resorts of Bournemouth and Plymouth is a popular holiday destination. A little further inland is the county of Wiltshire, which is particularly interesting for study travelers. In the hilly region between Mendip Hills, Salisbury Plain and Cotswolds, numerous prehistoric sights such… Read More »

Travel to Beautiful Cities in France

Here you will find study trips and round trips through the metropolises of France Paris Paris – a unique city for a unique city break! Look forward to this study trip to the impressive city of Paris, the capital of France. Visit a variety of ecclesiastical and secular buildings, streets, squares, parks, museums, theaters and… Read More »

Czech Republic History

Kingdom of Bohemia According to Andyeducation, the Czech territory was unified at the end of the 9th century by the dynasty of the Premyslites (Czech Premyslovci, this name means those who think a lot). The Kingdom of Bohemia was a significant regional power, with the King of Bohemia being one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor, the gold mines turned the… Read More »

Croatia Society

Education According to educationvv, primary education in Croatia begins at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007, a law was passed to increase free but not compulsory education up to eighteen years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight categories divided into primary school and secondary education that is provided… Read More »

Serbian Orthodox Church

Serbian Orthodox Church, the Autocephalous Orthodox Church of the Serbian Patriarchate. The Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous church. It has the rank of patriarchy with its seat in Belgrade. She gained her independence in 1219. Structure and distribution The head of the Serbian Orthodox Church is the “Archbishop of Peć, Metropolitan of Belgrade and… Read More »

Portugal Geography

Portugal – key data Area: 92,090 km² (of which land: 91,470 km², water: 620 km²). These values ​​include the Azores and Madeira. Population: 10.8 million (July 2011 estimate, CIA). Population density: 116.5 residents per square kilometer Population growth: 0.212% per year (2011, CIA) Capital: Lisbon (564,657 residents) Highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico… Read More »

Switzerland Overview

According to the Constitution of 1848, Switzerland ceased to be a Confederation and became a federal republic (the former denomination of the Swiss Confederation, however, has remained in common parlance). However, the Constitution of May 29, 1874 is currently in force, amended several times in the following decades. The 26 federated states or cantons, each… Read More »

Belgium Economy

The economic development of Belgium has its roots in the frenetic mercantile activity that characterized the bourgeois population of its cities since the beginning of the modern age. This vocation to trade, in common with the neighboring Netherlands and partly due to the strategic position between the French, German and British areas, manifested itself in… Read More »

Estonia Arts and Literature

CULTURE: LITERATURE Due to the lack of national independence, and leaving aside an ancient and rich popular poetry, literature proper developed relatively late in Estonia. The first book is printed there in 1517, but only in 1708 with the elegy of Hans Kasü there is also the first poem by an Estonian author. In the… Read More »

Split (World Heritage)

The old town is dominated by the remains of the mighty Diocletian’s Palace, which was built between 295 and 305 and was intended as a retirement home for the emperor. He combined various elements from Roman villa and palace architecture or from military and sacred architecture. The current cathedral is part of the former palace,… Read More »

Universities and Churches in Aachen, Germany

Universities and colleges RWTH Aachen The Rhenish-Westphalian Technical University of Aachen was founded in 1870 as the “Royal Rhenish-Westphalian Polytechnic School”. The educational institution is impressive in terms of architecture alone with its Renaissance main building on the Templergraben, which was built by the city master builder Robert Cremer. Due to the close proximity to… Read More »

Duty Free Shopping in Finland

According to homosociety, the following articles can be imported into Finland duty-free when entering from non-EU countries: 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 100 cigarillos (3 g each) or 250 g tobacco (people aged 18 and over); 1 l of spirits with an alcohol content of over 22% (people aged 20 and over) or 2… Read More »

Living in United Kingdom

NIGHTLIFE Introduction Home to famous theater greats like Olivier, Gielgud and of course Shakespeare, the UK has a wide variety of cultural entertainment options. Almost every major city has at least one theater, with London, Stratford and Edinburgh having become well-known centers of the performing arts. Every year in August, the Edinburgh Art Festival takes… Read More »

All About Council of Europe

Health care and bioethics Since 1954, the Council of Europe has had a Steering Committee for Health and Medical Affairs, which works to strengthen co-operation between countries, give everyone equal access to health care and strengthen the individual’s rights and influence in health and medical care issues. The Council of Europe’s largest efforts in health… Read More »