Prague, Czech Republic History

By | January 24, 2022


The first vestiges in the place that Prague occupies today date from the Paleolithic. The first stable settlement is considered to have been that of the Celtic tribe, around the 6th century BC. of Christ and settled south of present-day Prague. The town was called Závist. Later this tribe was replaced by the Germanic people and later by the Slavs, who remained from the 4th century, although for a period they were conquered by the Avars.

It was founded in the latter part of the 9th century with the construction of the castle on the right bank of the Vltava River. According to legend by Libuše, who later married Přemysl and started the Přemyslida dynasty. This castle is known as Vyšehrad and is not the current Prague Castle, which was erected on the opposite side of the river.

According to, Prague very soon became the settlement of the kings of Bohemia, some of whom reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In the 13th century, King Otakar II founded the Malá Strana neighborhood (small side). Which sits on the opposite side of the river.

The city flourished during the 14th century under the reign of Charles IV, who ordered the construction of the New city, united the urban centers on both banks of the river through the famous Charles Bridge (which replaced a previous bridge from the 12th century that was collapsed in 1342) and led to the construction of the first Central European University. In the 15th century, due to political and religious upheavals between Jan Hus and King Sigismund, the Hussite Wars developed.

Bohemia became part of the Habsburg dominions in 1526, making Prague the capital of an Austrian province. At the beginning of the seventeenth century the election of Ferdinand II, a Catholic, as King of Bohemia caused anger among the Bohemian nobles, of Protestant religion. When Ferdinand II sent two Catholic councilors to prepare for his arrival in Prague, they were kidnapped and thrown out of a castle window, known as the Defenestration of Prague. These events led to the Thirty Years War, whose main consequence was the sovereignty of the German provinces, despite remaining under the German Empire.

During the Austro-Hungarian rule, in the 19th century it became the center of Czech nationalism and its cultural and intellectual activity was brilliant, with the construction of the National Museum, the State Theater and the Rudolfinum.

First World War

In 1918, as a consequence of the First World War, Czechoslovakia was founded, and the new president of the republic Tomáš Masaryk made Prague the seat of his government and the capital of the Czech state.

Between 1939 and 1945 Hitler’s army occupied Prague. The city, hitherto multi-ethnic in character, witnessed the persecution of the Jewish people. Many were captured and sent to Concentration Camps, where most were exterminated.

In 1945 the American army bombed the city, mistaking it for Dresden, causing the fury of the Czechs. A few days later the Soviet army liberated the city and the Czech citizens took revenge at their hand, causing the death of several citizens of German origin.

After the Second World War

After World War II, the Czech Republic became part of the socialist camp allied with the Soviet Union.

In 1989 Prague abandoned socialism. Being the center of the Velvet Revolution during the fall of socialism. Four years later, in 1993, the division of the Czech Republic and Slovakia was peacefully decided, becoming the capital of the Czech Republic. In September 2000, the Prague Protests against Globalization during the summit of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank led to an urban guerrilla against the police. More than 15,000 protesters participated in one of the largest protests against globalization and capitalism in history. In August 2002 the river Vltava overflowed with a flow greater than 5,100 m³ / s causing serious damage to the city. It took her two years to recover.


The Prague Castle (Pražský hrad) with 570 meters long and 130 wide, is considered the largest medieval fortress in the world. Inside you can visit the Cathedral of Saint Vitus, the Royal Palace, the Lobkowizk Palace, the Basilica of Saint George, the Gold Street, the Royal Garden, the Loreto Church, the Powder Tower and the Daliborska Tower. We can also say that it has several primacies:

  • First of all, it is the largest castle in the world, which is why it is registered in the Guinness Book of Records.
  • It is also the most visited Czech historical monument by tourists. * It is the most important among Czech castles, because it has always been the seat of the king and is currently the seat of the president.
  • It belongs, without a doubt, to the most beautiful castles in our country.
  • It is a unique specimen in every way, and is a must for all tourists.

Prague, Czech Republic History