Pakistan (Islamic Republic of Pakistan). South Asian state. It borders Afghanistan, China, India, Iran, and the Arabian Sea. Its area is 803,000 km². It is one of the most populous countries on the planet, with more than 170 million residents, the majority Muslim.
According to Oxfordastronomy.com, the country extends through the Indus basin, at the foot of the Himalayas, and is bordered to the east by the Thar desert and to the west by the Afghan mountains.
The Urdu and English are the official languages, living with different native languages like Punjabi (the most widely spoken in Pakistan), Pashto, Sindhi and saraik.
It is a country characterized by drought and extreme temperatures and altitudes. The country is divided by the Indus River, which enters from the northeast and flows south to empty into the Arabian Sea or Sea of Oman.
The Indus forms the dividing line of two of the country’s physiographic areas: the Indus Plain, which runs along the eastern bank of the river, and the Baluchistan Plateau, to the southwest. Four other physiographic areas also stand out: the coastal plain, a narrow strip of land that borders the Arabian Sea; the Jaran Basin, west of the Baluchistan Plateau; the Thar Desert (or Great Indian Desert), which lies on both sides of the border with India in the southeast; and the mountains of the north and northwest, at the foot of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush.
The Indus Plain south of the northern mountain systems ranges in width from 80 to 320 km and covers an area of approximately 518,000 km2. From north to south there are two important regions, the Punjab Plain and the Sind Plain. The first is the most important agrarian area of the Republic, taking advantage of the flow of several tributaries of the Indus, such as the Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum rivers, although floods are also very frequent due to their torrential nature. Further south, in the lower reaches of Indus, is the Sind plain, whose natural aridity is offset by irrigation works carried out to promote agriculture.
To the west of these plains, a series of mountain systems, notably the Toba Kakar Range, the Siahan Range, the Suleiman Range and the Kīrthar Range, border the Upper Baluchistan Plateau, a very dry region, which It is recently suitable for agriculture, where only a few nomadic shepherds live.
The highest peak is K2 (or Godwin Austen) which, at 8,611 m above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world after Everest. K2 is in the Karakorum mountain range, in the Jammu and Kashmir region controlled by Pakistan. Also noteworthy are Nanga Parbat (8,125 m) and Mir (7,690 m) in the Hindu Kush. The Jyber Pass, on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, divides the Safed Koh range.
The climate is continental and the country is one of the driest regions of the Indian subcontinent. The North receives abundant rainfall, while the South is arid. However, periods of flooding and drought are variable and as frequent.
The most important river courses are the, Indus and its tributaries, Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej.
The vegetation of Pakistan varies according to altitude and rainfall. In most of the country the natural vegetation is limited to drought-resistant grasses and shrubs. Alpine vegetation develops on the slopes of the mountains. On the more humid slopes there are forests of spruce, holm oaks, chir or cheer pine and weeping or Himalayan cedars.
Pakistan has a diverse fauna. The most prominent species are deer, wild boar, bears, crocodiles, and waterfowl. There is also a wide variety of freshwater and saltwater fauna. The most important marine species are herring, mackerel and sharks, as well as shellfish.
It is one of the most populated countries in the world, and has a rural population, concentrated in the eastern region. It is made up of various ethnic groups: Punjabis, Sindhis, Pathans, Baluchis, and Paleoindians (Bengalis).
The main economic activity is agriculture, in which cereal crops, sesame, sugar cane, rice, textile products and horticultural products stand out. The scarce industry is located in the areas of Punjab and Karachi and textiles predominate. The currency is the Pakistani rupee.
Its mining resources include salt, chromium, coal, gypsum, limestone, iron ore, sulfur, clay, graphite, copper, oil and natural gas.
63.70% of electrical energy is produced in thermal power plants and most of the remaining energy is generated in hydroelectric facilities, among which is the great Tarbela project on the Indus River. Pakistan also has a small nuclear sector: a nuclear power plant located near Karachi contributes about 2.35% of total production.
Foreign trade, is based on large exports of raw materials base and products such as yarn of cotton, and imports of manufactured goods.