The history of San Marino begins in the 300s, when St. Marinus (San Marino), the leader of a Christian congregation, settled on Monte Titano in the Appennines. The small settlement on the mountain eventually developed into a monastery, then a fortress. Despite many attempts at interference by foreign states, San Marino has managed to retain a high degree of independence since the Middle Ages, and the country is considered to be Europe’s oldest republic.
The papacy recognized San Marino as an independent state in 1631. The state remained independent after Italy’s collection, and from 1862 stands under the protection of Italy.
Medieval and early modern times
According to tradition, San Marino’s history goes back to the early 300s, when Saint Marinus (San Marino), along with a group of Christians, settled in the mountains here to escape persecution. Castellum Sancti Marini is mentioned 754 and 885. See abbreviationfinder for geography, history, society, politics, and economy of San Marino. A monastery was built in memory of Marinus, and a village grew up.
In the 1100s, San Marino was a municipality that, due to its isolated location and mountain fortresses, could reject several conquest attempts. During the rivalry between the Malatesta family in Rimini and the Montefeltro family in Urbino, San Marino was protected by the latter. The state was given a constitution in 1599, which was later amended several times. In 1631, Pope Urban 8 recognized San Marino’s independence and granted the state freedom of duty.
The period after 1800
In 1815, the Vienna Congress affirmed the state’s independence. In 1862, San Marino and Italy entered into an agreement for eternal friendship and good neighborliness, and San Marino stood under Italy’s protection. The agreement was confirmed in 1939 and revised in 1971.
After the fascist takeover of power in Italy in 1922, San Marino also gained fascist rule. Although the Republic had close ties to Mussolini’s Italy during this period, San Marino soldiers were never sent to the Italian army. The Sanmarine fascist party was dissolved in 1943, just after Mussolini was deposed in Italy.
In the March 1945 elections, a coalition consisting of the Socialist Party and the Communist Party gained a majority, and this coalition retained power until 1957. In 1978, the Republic gained a new coalition government with Communists and Socialists, and this remained until 1986. San Marino is the only country in the West -Europe that has had a government led by a Communist Party.
Voting rights for women were passed in 1958, and women could vote for the first time in the 1964 election. The largest political party in San Marino throughout the post-war period was the Christian Democratic Party, which had its highest voter turnout in 1964, when they got over 46% of the voices.
In the period following the fall of the Berlin Wall, the left side of San Marino retained power for long periods. In the 2016 election, the Christian Democratic Party was still the largest, but a coalition of the Reformed Communist Party and a number of other smaller parties gained greater support than the Christian Democrats’ coalition.
San Marino is not a member of the EU, but has a customs agreement with all EU countries from 1993. The country joined the euro cooperation in 1999, and introduced the euro as currency in 2002. San Marino joined the UN in 1992, the Council of Europe in 1988 and OSCE in 1973.