The Stone Age can be followed in a bargain sequence from Border Cave. chip blades in the post-acheuléan pietersburg tradition may have been made already some 200,000 years ago. Traces of anatomically modern humans go back about 95,000 years. About 40,000 years ago, microliters were typical tools; from the same time there are traces of systematic quarrying near Mbabane. Late Paleolithic settlements with rock paintings can be found throughout Swaziland. Agriculture and ironmaking are known from the first centuries of our era. See abbreviationfinder for geography, history, society, politics, and economy of Swaziland.
According to the story, the Swazi part of the Nguni people crossed the Limpopo River and settled in Tsongaland, Mozambique, while Zulu and Xhosa continued south. The royal clan Nkosi Dlamini dates back to at least the 14th century. After 1750, Ngwane III led the people across the Lubombo Mountains to approximately the present area. In the 19th century, the kingdom was expanded under the kings Sobhuza I (c. 1815–36) and Mswati II (1840–68), which gave the country its name. In the 1880s, farmers and British acquired concessions on much of the country’s land to gain pasture and access to the port. The Transvaal residents took over actual power.
The Swazis hoped for security when Britain took over in 1903 after the Boer War, but when the British demanded tax, the men were forced to become migrant workers in South Africa’s mines. In addition, the British wanted Swaziland to succeed in South Africa. A severe livestock plague did not lessen the crisis. The British gave up the plan for transposition following the apartheid introduction into South Africa and the Swazi resistance.
In 1962, a radical Labor-based party was formed, the Ngwane National Liberatory Congress (NNLC), which wanted constitutional monarchy. King Sobhuza II (1899–1982), who has ruled since 1921, immediately formed a traditionalist party, Imbokodvo (‘millstone that cannot be split’), the National Movement (INM), which won all seats in the parliamentary elections before independence through an election system that favored the countryside. 1968. When the NNLC won three seats in the next election, the Constitution was repealed in 1973, Parliament dissolved and parties banned. In 1978, a system of representation was introduced which was based on local councils elected by the men, the tinkhundla, who organized the chieftains in groups under the king.
After Sobhuza’s death in 1982, a long power struggle followed in the royal house, which continued after Mswati III ‘s entry on April 25, 1986. During the 1990s, opposition to the king’s power grew. Several organizations were formed, including the People’s United Democratic Movement (PUDEMO), to which also the Swaziland Youth Congress (SWAYOCO) belongs. The trade union center Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions (SFTU) is also part of the opposition and is supported by trade union center COSATU in South Africa, where many from Swaziland have worked. Although certain human rights are to be guaranteed under the new constitution that came into force in 2006, the royal monarchy remains. Political parties are banned and opposition representatives are subject to harassment of various kinds.
While more than half of the population lives on less than $ 2 a day, the King and his 14 wives live a life of abundance; each wife has, among other things, been provided with her own palace and luxury car. The country is one of the worst affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; around one in four adults is estimated to be infected. In 2008, about 1,500 HIV-infected women protested against eight of the king’s wives going abroad to luxury shop for the 40th anniversary of the country’s independence, a celebration that was estimated to cost about SEK 80 million.
In 2018, the country’s official name was changed from Swaziland to Eswatini, a word for Swazi which means “Swazi country”. Eswatini has since been the name used in international contexts.