Africa

Central African Republic History

The Central African Republic, formerly a French colony with the name of Oubangui-Chari, inhabited by pygmies, was populated by other ethnic groups, pursued by religious conquerors (such as Usman dan Fodio in the early 1800s) or by adventurers and slavers (such as Rabah towards the end of the 19th century), perhaps only at the beginning of the 19th century. XIX. The Russian Junker and the Belgian Van Gele were, in 1876-77, the first Europeans to enter the region; subsequently the French, who were extending their influence in the interior regions of western and equatorial Africa, reached Oubangui; Crampel arrived on 25 September 1890 in Bangui, the current capital of the Republic. In 1892 and 1893 Dybowski and Maistre signed treaties with the sultans of Baghirmi; in the following years the western region of the territory was traveled and on 1 November 1897 Gentil reached the Chari. The French colonies broke immediately after Rabah’s stubborn resistance, killing him at Kousseri in 1900. Meanwhile in 1894 the territories of Upper Oubangui and western Bangui had been reunited under the command of Monteil, and, in 1897, the government of Oubangui-Chari. In 1910, with the creation of French Equatorial Africa, Oubangui-Chari became, with Chad, Gabon and the Middle Congo, one of the four colonies of the federation.

Overseas Territory within the framework of the French Union (1946), opted for entry into the French Community with the Meanwhile, in 1894 the territories of Upper Oubangui and western Bangui had been reunited under the command of Monteil, and, in 1897, the government of Oubangui-Chari had been established. In 1910, with the creation of French Equatorial Africa, Oubangui-Chari became, with Chad, Gabon and the Middle Congo, one of the four colonies of the federation. Overseas Territory within the framework of the French Union (1946), opted for entry into the French Community with the Meanwhile, in 1894 the territories of Upper Oubangui and western Bangui had been reunited under the command of Monteil, and, in 1897, the government of Oubangui-Chari had been established. In 1910, with the creation of French Equatorial Africa, Oubangui-Chari became, with Chad, Gabon and the Middle Congo, one of the four colonies of the federation. Overseas Territory within the framework of the French Union (1946), opted for entry into the French Community with the status of autonomous Republic and with the new name of Central African Republic (1 December 1958). On August 13, 1960, the new state gained full independence. On January 1, 1966, the President of the Republic David Dacko was overthrown by a coup led by Marshal Bokassa. President for life since 1972, the latter proclaimed himself emperor of the country on 4 December 1976 (Central African Empire). The brief “imperial” parenthesis was closed on September 20, 1979 with a new overthrow of the political leadership that restored the Republic. Dacko, returned to the presidency, was however dismissed on 1 September 1981 by a military coup orchestrated by General André Kolingba, with the support of France. The Constitution was suspended and all powers passed to the Military Committee for the National Rebirth. A first inclusion of civilians in the government there was only in 1985 with the dissolution of the committee; in the following year a new constitution was promulgated, the single party of the Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricaine (RDC) was established and Kolingba was re-elected president. In the’ April 1991 international pressures forced Kolngba to start a process of democratization, opening up to multi-partyism and calling for elections to be held in 1993, electing Auge-Félix Patassé of the MPLC (Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain) as President of the Republic. Already at the end of 1994 he called a referendum for the approval of a new Constitution, voted by a large majority (82%) by the population, which brought about some changes in view of a strengthening of presidential powers: the head of state, the whose mandate was previously set at 6 years without the possibility of re-election, was authorized to reapply, and became the guarantor of the country’s unity, while the prime minister turned out to have the function of implementing the policy decided by the presidency.

According to getzipcodes, the formation of a government made up exclusively of members of the MPLC opened, starting from April 1996, a phase of crisis, with the rebellion of some sectors of the army that demanded the resignation of the president. Thanks to the intervention of a French contingent, present in the Central African Republic, and the mediation of some African countries, Patassé managed to be right on the seditious, granting an amnesty, promising the formation of a government of national unity and accepting the creation of a Inter-African Mission for the Surveillance of the Bangui Agreements (MISAB), made up of 750 soldiers from six African countries (Burkina, Chad, Gabon, Mali, Senegal and Togo) which became operational in February 1997. However, precisely in 1997 there was a new military revolt with new mutinies and frequent clashes between MISAB units and mutinous soldiers; for this reason, in March 1998, the UN Security Council decided to send a new contingent of blue helmets (MINURCA mission) to the Central African Republic, which replaced the forces of the MISAB mission.

Central African Republic History