The Azerbaijani population is a conglomerate, a secular fusion of the ancient peoples of the East Caucasus. In the area we know today as Azerbadjan originated in the 9th century BCE the states of Mana, Caucasian Albania and Atropotena – from the latter the name Azerbadjan is derived. General Atropates proclaimed the independence of this province in the year 328 BCE, when Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great. See abbreviationfinder for geography, history, society, politics, and economy of Azerbaijan.
Later, these states were incorporated into Asian and later Sasanian Persia. It came to anti-Sasanian insurgency, such as the revolt of the mazdokites. In the year 642, the Arab caliphates conquered Azerbadjan, which was still an area inhabited by various ethnic tribes. The Arabs gathered the land under Islam, i.e. the Shiite edition, however, under some resistance. During the period 1816-37, an anti-Arab uprising led by Babek arose.
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From the 8th to the 10th centuries, Azerbadjan was passed by an important trade route linking the Near East and Eastern Europe. From the 9th to the 14th centuries, the Turks occupied Transcaucasia and northern Persia. All peoples of the area took over Turkish as a spoken language, and during this period, from the 11th to the 13th centuries, the Azerbaijani people formed ethnic identity. The Sirván region, north of Azerbaijan, was declared an independent state between the 15th and 16th centuries.
In the transition from 15-16. century the state of the Setévids emerged. The founder of the dynasty, Shah Ismael of the 1st, received help from the nomadic Azerbaijani tribes, which evolved to become the primary power factor of the state. At the end of the 16th century, the Azerbaijani nobles transferred their territories to the Iranians.
Eastern Transcaucasia became the scene of the Iran-Turkey rivalry between the 16th and 17th centuries. In the early 18th century, Azerbadjan began to become interesting to the Russian Empire. In the middle of the century, there were more than 15 Azerbaijan khanates, kings who depended on Iran. After several wars between Russia on the one hand and alternately Turkey and Persia on the other, the peace treaty was signed both in Gulistán, 1813 and partly in Turkmenchai, 1828. According to these agreements, northern Azerbaijan was annexed by Russia; these were the provinces of Bakú and Yelisavétpol; the latter is today called Guiandzhá.
The agricultural reform introduced in Russia in 1870 accelerated capitalist development in Azerbaijan, and the region’s oil wealth served as an incentive to further accelerate this development. After the Russian revolution in 1905, in Bakú, in 1911, the bourgeois nationalist party Musevat, which means Equality, was founded with pantyric and pamislamic tendencies. Following the triumph of the Bolsheviks in October 1917, the Soviet power was introduced into Azerbaijan by the Bakú municipality.
The Turkish-English intervention, which took place in the summer of 1918, disposed of the Bakú municipality and brought the Musavites to power. The Red Army captured Bakú in April 1920, and introduced the Soviet system throughout Azerbaijan, which was proclaimed Socialist Soviet Republic, which later in March 1922 was incorporated into the Federation of Socialist Soviet Republics in Transcaucasia, together with Armenia and Georgia.
In the early 1920s, in an effort to resolve internal ethnic conflicts, Moscow decided to incorporate Nagorny Karabakh and Najichevan into Azerbaijan; these two areas had otherwise belonged to Armenia. In July 1923, the Autonomous Region of Nagorny Karabakh was formed and in February 1924 the Autonomous Republic of Najichevan, both members of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Azerbadjan, was formed. In December 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation disbanded and the Soviet Republic of Azerbadjan was separately incorporated into the Soviet Union. In 1929, an attempt was made to replace the Azerbaijani language using Arabic characters with the Latin alphabet. In January 1940, the alphabet with Russian letters was introduced.