South America

Argentina History

The oldest archaeological finds in the Argentine area date from ca. 10,000 BC About. 500 BC taught the Indians in Argentina to grow potatoes, hold llamas, and work in ceramics and metals. In the last of three ceramic periods, after approx. 1000 AD, rich bronze works were made. Somewhat younger are hires for urban development and fortifications.

This culture is related to the corresponding period in the forest area further in the northeast. But the Native American culture of the land today known as Argentina was technologically and organizationally very simple compared to the Aztec, Mayan and Inca cultures.

It is estimated that by the colonization of the Europeans there was a Native American population of approx. 300 000. Approx. In 1480, Northwest Argentina was incorporated into the Incaret.

The colonial past

Río de la Plata’s estuary was discovered by Europeans in 1516. 1520 reached Fernão de Magalhães on his circumnavigation Patagonian coast. From the west and north, the northwestern part of the country was colonized in the middle of the 16th century.

Argentina was part of the Viceroy of Peru until 1776. See abbreviationfinder for geography, history, society, politics, and economy of Argentina. The direct trade with Spain was very small, and most goods to the country were imported via the west coast of South America. Río de la Plata had very little significance. Northwest Argentina provided foodstuffs to the silver mining community of Potosí in Bolivia, which generated good revenue.

The Viceroy of Río de la Plata, which also included Paraguay and Bolivia, was established in 1776. In 1778, trade with Spain was released. Córdoba was the most important city in the colony. The city was centrally located in Argentina and got its university in 1613, administered by Spanish conservative Jesuits. This position was broken towards the end of the 18th century, when Buenos Aires became the economic, political and cultural capital. This was due to the fact that trade with Peru lost its importance in favor of the transatlantic.

Independence and time until approx. 1930

The independence movement succeeded in 1810 to free Buenos Aires from Spanish domination, and in 1816 Argentina declared itself independent of Spain. A sharp contradiction arose between the “centralists” in Buenos Aires, who supported the citizenship, and the “federalists” in the country, supported by the larger landowners.

The country’s strong man from 1835 to 1852, Juan Manuel de Rosas, was a federalist, but through his powerful course contributed to promoting the cause of the centralists. He led an ongoing foreign policy, with war on Bolivia and Uruguay, and in the years 1845-48 against France and the United Kingdom.

In Rosas’s time, Argentina became the most powerful state in South America. This was partly due to Brazil surviving a civil war. When Brazil again became a great power, Rosas was defeated in 1852. After he was deposed, the provincial provinces joined together in a separate federation, but Buenos Aires conquered this by joining the 1861 Argentina itself with Uruguay and Brazil in the Triple Alliance and went to war against Paraguay in 1865. The war lasted for five years and led to the largest genocide in Latin America after the colonial era.

In 1880, Buenos Aires became the national capital and a center of power for the incumbent presidents who later could not be rocked.

An economic boom began for Argentina in the 1870s. The original subpopulated country received 6 million immigrants from Europe between 1860 and 1930, and especially Spain and Italy. Despite the fact that Spanish has remained the national language of Argentina, the Italian influence has been as strong as the Spanish. Also from Western Europe many emigrated to Argentina, and more Scandinavians settled there than in any other country in Latin America. The Indians were brutally slaughtered, and the country therefore had a purely European character in terms of population.

Railway construction accelerated in the 1870s. As an agricultural country, Argentina became one of the world’s leaders, with first-class meat and wheat for export. Foreign capital came primarily from the United Kingdom, which became Argentina’s most important trading partner until the Second World War.

From 1880 to 1916, Argentina was dominated by the conservative and national party PAN, supported by landlords. Economic growth was explosive until 1890, when inflation ran rampant and confidence disappeared in the British capital market. The result was that economic growth stopped and Argentina received a considerable foreign debt. But agriculture recovered quickly from the crisis, and it was during this period that Argentina became the world’s leading supplier of agricultural products.

Unlike most other states in the region, Argentina had a middle class, which had the so-called radical party (UCR), founded in 1889, as a voice tube. It had a sting against the landlords, but was otherwise liberal. During the crisis of the 1890s, UCR significantly increased its importance. In 1912 general voting rights were implemented and the political life in the country dominated from 1916 to 1930. The party was very corrupt. The economic crisis that began after the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in 1929 led to unrest in Argentina as well, and the army began its later strong political position when in 1930 it helped to overthrow radical President Hipólito Irigoyen.

Conservative forces then ruled the country until 1943. Corruption was no less than before, and the growing industrial working class was kept out of social life. Nationalist officers did a coup in 1943. They had great sympathy for the Axis powers in Europe, and their goal, behind a program of cooperation between the countries of the region, was to make Argentina the Latin America’s leading state.

Traditional Argentine contempt for the predominantly non-white population of the other republics, and not least in Brazil, which was the main challenger to the leadership position, made it easy for the new government to play further on nationalist sentiments.