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Sweden History

Prehistory

The Stone Age: Paleolithic (ca. 11000–8200 BC)

During the last ice age, reindeer hunters migrated from the European continent across a land bridge in the Sound. Their oldest known camp site, about 13,000 years old, is located on Lake Finjasjön in Skåne, a slightly younger one at Segebro. During this time, a specific material culture was developed in southern Sweden and Denmark (see bromine culture). In a second phase of immigration, people who were carrying on the tradition of the ahrensburg culture arrived. They have set aside a lot of settlement abandonments in Western Sweden.

History of Sweden

Mesolithic (ca. 8200–4000 BC)

The first settlements after the ice melt belong to the Maglemose culture, which is located over large parts of southern Scandinavia. Settlements in marsh environments, later converted to mosses where bone and horn objects are well preserved, are the most informative (compare Ageröds bog). From the West Coast there are also remains of coastal communities, including in Hensbacka and Sandarna. Small arrowheads of flint, microliter, are characteristic finds from this period. At about the same time as the spread of the late Maglemic culture, about 7500 BC, Central and Northern Sweden was also populated. In these areas, the preserved material culture is dominated by implements of quartz, quartzite and other rocks. As a result of the land rise, the remains of the Stone Age coastal settlement are high above the current shoreline and in northern Norrland sometimes as much as up to 100 km from the coast. Instead, in southern Sweden, the sea covers the coastal area from the early Mesolithic period.

During the middle part of the Mesolithic, the congregation culture developedin southern Sweden, and on the west coast the contemporary lihult culture; the latter can be followed for the rest of the Mesolithic. During the Late Sotho period (6000–4000 BC), there were large coastal settlements in southern Sweden. From its composition, the finds from there are almost identical to the Danish pea culture. These settlements were permanent or semi-permanent and placed in places with good natural resources, where fishing played an important role. In some cases, graves or tombs have been found there. In contemporary coastal settlements in Norrland, slightly recessed hulls with low embankments appear. The use of slate for implements now increased in this part of the country. In southern Sweden, the material culture appears to have undergone rapid changes in the transition between the Mesolithic and the Neolithic, while the introduction of arable farming and livestock management has been slower.

Neolithic (about 4000-1800 BC)

During the early Neolithic period (4000–3300 BC), Middle Sweden was reached by funnel culture according to Digopaul. The community was based on individual farms, which as a result of farming that depleted the land were moved one or a couple of times per generation. At the end of the period, a firmer housing structure emerged, probably due to improved agricultural technology. At the same time, large-scale tombs in the form of boxes and pedestrians began to be erected; they are the first monuments of human hand in the Swedish landscape.

A climate change in the early Middle Ages (3300 to 2200 BC) led to the abandonment of agricultural industries in Central Sweden. Through the influence from the east, the material culture changed again, and pit ceramic culture developed. Clear traces of eastern cultural influence can also be found in Norrland, mainly from chamber ceramic culture. In southern Sweden, influence from the continent began to assert itself on both a material and a religious level, which was expressed in the culture of warfare. Collective burials in tombstones were now replaced by individual graves. The majority of all rock carvings with hunting motifs in central Norrland can be dated to this and the following period.

During the Late Politics (2200-1800 BC), the means of material expression became increasingly similar; e.g. tombs were built in the form of rock chests both on the coasts and in Sweden's previously sparsely populated inland. This also indicates a significant spread of housing. The limited import of copper objects that existed from around 3400 BC (see copper age) was replaced from about 2000 BC of an increasing inflow of bronze and bronze objects.

The bronze age

With the imported metal, in addition to technical know-how, ideas and conceptions of society and the world followed. In Southern Scandinavia, the so-called Nordic Bronze Age culture developed, which largely received cultural impulses from Central Europe, while Sweden north of Uppland-Värmland (as well as Northern Norway and Finland) received impressions from Russia and Siberia. Both in the south and the north, the meeting between tradition and foreign impressions resulted in new forms of culture, which partly survived into the Iron Age. Oscar Montelius divided the Nordic Bronze Age in 1885 into six chronological periods, which are still used.

Period I– III: The Bronze Age (about 1800–1100 BC)

The richly decorated weapons and jewelery preserved from this era - often with an almost all-encompassing, elegant, punched spiral ornament - are status objects that reflect the social divide of society. They were manufactured in southern Scandinavia, perhaps in a small number of workshops. Most come from skeletal tombs in piles in Skåne and from piles and cattle in Western Sweden. Up to Uppland, the remains of long houses are found, either alone or some together. Livestock management dominated, but the cultivation of barley and wheat was also common. From this time, rock carvings spread from Skåne to Uppland. The community was based on local chiefdom. However, the trade in bronze and domestic goods required a wider organization: facilities such as the Kiviksröset and the tomb at Sagaholm also suggests the existence of major regional chiefdom.

In northern Sweden, southern Scandinavian bronzes are few, while older bronze age burrows are common along the Gulf of Bothnia. Whether people from the south moved there cannot be decided; the coastal population may have maintained old cultural contacts. Inland, a number of catchment sites are known from the entire Bronze Age. The finds are mainly characterized by exquisitely made, thin quartzite arrow and spear tips; Both form and technology originate from the east. Hunting, fishing and gathering were the most important industries, and the settlements were located by streams as well as during the Stone Age; However, sporadic cultivation and livestock management occurred. The community organization was simpler than in southern Sweden, but probably the local chiefdom also existed here.

Period IV - VI: Younger Bronze Age (c. 1100–500 BC)

Among the finds from this time, the combination razor, tweezers and jaw (or tattoo needle) is common, but there are also swords, axes, neck rings and belt cups. The small objects are found mainly in clay ornaments along with burnt human bones, ie. in fire graves that have been dug into the fill for older burial mounds or in burial fields under flat ground. The change in grave condition suggests a changed view of man; however, whether this also affected the social structure cannot yet be determined.

Metal became an everyday commodity; inter alia almost 2,000 so-called bronze hollyhocks have been found, most of which may well have been work tools. Remains after bronze foundry workshops have been found in many places (compare Hallunda), and unlike in the past, smaller regions with different types of characteristic bronze objects can be distinguished. Locations with three-storey long houses have been found, among other things. at Apalle in Uppland and Fosie in Malmö. Livestock management was still a more important industry than arable farming. The large settlements, imports, trade and workshop circles indicate a social structure that was more developed than during the older Bronze Age (compare Hågahögen).

There was a clear difference between upper and middle Norrland. In the northern area, the eastern impulses (compare ananino culture and asbestos ceramics), in Mellannorrland, increased the southern, noticeable in the spread of southern Scandinavian object types; cultivation and grazing also became more common there than before. This can be interpreted as linking central Norrland to the Nordic cultural circle, while upper Norrland came to belong to the cultural sphere which was later referred to as Sami.

Several bronze age phenomena would affect development in Sweden for a long time to come. These included the emergence of a Nordic population divided into different tribes and a Sami population related to Northern Norway and Finland, the establishment of close contacts with parts of Europe, and a developed social structure and trade, advanced wood-building technology, large farmhouses and a domestic metal craft.

THE iRON aGE

The archaeological source material from the Iron Age shows great regional variations in time and space. It also makes it possible to distinguish southern Sweden (mainly Skåne), the Baltic Islands, western Sweden, the Mälar region and southern and central Norrland as separate cultural regions; Upper Norrland can be distinguished as a Sami area.

The few written sources of medieval Sweden, all foreign, are not clear or uncontroversial. They consist mainly of the Roman historian Tacitus, who during the first century AD mentions what has been interpreted as residents of Sweden (see svions), the Gothic historian Jordanes, who in the 500s mentions several tribes in Sweden (which are, however, difficult to identify), the sailor Wulfstan's story from a journey along the coast of Sweden during 800- the second half of the century and, from the same time, the German Archbishop Rimberts biography of the representative Ansgar. From the end of the 11th century on the Swedish conditions there are valuable episcopal chronicles recorded by Adam of Bremen.

The approximately 3,000 runic inscriptions that were found in Sweden mainly consist of owner or memorial inscriptions, but from the Viking age onwards there are several that provide culturally interesting information.

Iron Age Iron Age (ca. 500 BC - BC)

During the oldest Iron Age, southern Sweden, the Baltic Sea Islands and Western Sweden had intensive contacts with the southern Baltic Sea area. can be read from the presence of different types of suit buckles. The state of society seems to have had a collective character, without much need for manifesting wealth. is emphasized by the large fire pit burial fields in i.a. Väster- och Östergötland. Local ironmaking also seems to have begun, especially in the south.

Roman Iron Age (AD - 400 AD)

During this period, extensive changes occurred, especially from the 20th century. The older social patterns were replaced by a social condition in which the individual became increasingly important. Behind the development were not least the contacts with the Roman Empire and an increasing exchange of goods with a strong element of Roman import goods; the event can be traced to Västernorrland. The formerly prevalent fire burial condition was extended with burial, not least in the Götal landscape and in the Baltic islands, which may also indicate increased social stratification. The process can also be observed in the Mälar landscape and in central Norrland, towards the end of the period manifested in richly equipped chamber tombs.

Especially in Östergötland as well as in Öland and Gotland, the settlements appear to have been characterized by seemingly organized farm buildings with stone ground houses and large systems of enclosures. Noteworthy is also the wealth of gold finds in some areas, not least in Öland, which may indicate extensive contacts to the south. Large parts of southern Sweden came to be incorporated into a larger economic and political system with the center in present-day Denmark. Now the run script was also introduced in Sweden.

Migration (400–550 AD)

The transformation of society in the form of a concentration of power to various centers continued, something that can be read from the rich and monumental tombs of the period, not least in the Mälar landscape and in central Norrland. The settlement patterns also changed, something that, in the case of mainly Öland and Gotland, was previously interpreted as the result of devastation, but which is now rather considered to be due to social change. The striking gold richness among the finds has been interpreted as the result of a changed sacrificial ritual, concentrated to local rulers who mediated contact with the gods. Iron production increased strongly in some areas, including: in the Storsjö countryside in Jämtland.

Information in foreign sources suggests that sons of local princes in the Nordic countries resided at the court of continental German states. The external ideological and political impulses have probably been significant, something not least reflected in art (see animal ornamentation). Among the well-known finds with a clear continuity from the Roman Iron Age to the time of migration are Helgö in Lake Mälaren. Numerous fortifications, so-called ancient fortresses, were erected, especially in the beginning of the migration period, especially in the Mälar landscape and in Bohuslän. However, their social background and function have varied considerably (see ancient castle).

Turnaround time (550–800) and Viking time (800–1050)

At the end of the Iron Age, social development was consolidated in the direction of the formation of the larger kingdoms. In the archaeological material, not least, the Mälar landscapes, Dalarna, Gästrikland and Hälsingland are strongly represented through more permanent settlement patterns, extensive iron handling and the maintenance of foreign contacts (including with the Baltic States, Finland and Russia). Differences with southern and western Sweden are now more clearly reflected in the burial material. In Western Sweden, the need to manifest society in visible tombs and tombs seems to have been less than in the eastern part of the country, which could be interpreted as a sign of social differences between gutters and swans. The founding of Birka in the 7th century was a natural consequence of the extensive international contacts.

The background to the emergence of a united Swedish kingdom is debated. The importance of the Mälar region in this context has been emphasized, and in an older research tradition, the role of Gamla Uppsala was also emphasized. Old Uppsala was obviously a central seat of central importance and with continuity from the migration period to the beginning of the Middle Ages (see Gamla Uppsala, Vendel and Valsgärde). However, with regard to the source information, it is difficult to see the national unification as solely from the Mälar region (compare ” Svea kingdom"). Instead, archaeologists and historians are seeking explanatory models in major societies and external contacts, not least with the strong Danish empire during the Viking era. In this context, the mediating role of the gothic landscape has probably been more central than previously thought.

History

Christianity and the rise of the kingdom

During the Middle Ages, about 1000–1300, a national unit with a state-bearing royal power was stabilized in Sweden, and the country was Christianized. Mission is known as early as the 8th century, but only after the year 1000 did the new religion get its breakthrough. A church organization was gradually built up, and a diocese is known from the beginning of the 12th century. Sweden became its own archbishopric in 1164 with (Old) Uppsala as its seat.

From ancient times, a number of more or less secure kings are known with a limited dominance. A change occurred around 1000 with the emergence of the Christian kingdom claiming to be recognized in both Götaland and Svealand. However, the royal power was contentious, unstable and often regionally limited. In addition, Sweden was an election monarchy throughout the Middle Ages, which meant that the succession of beliefs was not always obvious. The period from about 1130 to the beginning of the 13th century was characterized by the struggle between the Eriks and Swedes. During this time, the kingdom can mainly be associated with Götaland. It was also where the earliest church organization grew. In particular, Östergötland appears to be the real base of the emerging kingdom. Uppland sometimes stood for a resistance to the central and Christian kingdom.

Alongside the kings, there were earls from the 12th century as important rulers. The last with that title was Birger Earl, active from the latter part of Erik Eriksson's time. At King Erik's death in 1250, Birger's son Valdemar was elected king. Thereby the so-called Folkungaät came to power. However, Valdemar was deposed by his brother Magnus Ladulås through an uprising. During Birger Earl's and Magnus Ladulå's time, fundamental political and social changes took place. The royal power was strengthened, and the political power took on a firmer form. At the end of the 13th century we find special political offices: marshals, kings and chancellors. A council alongside the king became permanent during the latter part of the 13th century and served during the rest of the Middle Ages as an important political counterpart to the royal power. In the Council, after 1319 also called the National Council,

During the latter part of the 13th century, the kingdom's political center was moved north to the Mälardalen valley, and the royal power gained more control over both Svealand and Götaland. At the same time, the Swedish empire was consolidated in Finland. War developments in the east with the Principality of Novgorod temporarily halted through the Nöteborg Treaty in 1323. Gotland was also tied closer to the Swedish empire by a treaty in 1288.

During the Middle Ages, the royal power often interacted with the church. Through Skänninge's meeting in 1248, a canonical church ordinance was enforced, which led to a more independent position for the church, whose relationship to the royal power was gradually regulated in the 13th century through privileges. In 1281, the church was granted fundamental tax exemption for its land and thereby came to constitute spiritual salvation (compare salvation).

Similarly, the chiefs were given tax exemption for their land. In Alsnö statute from about 1280, a worldly salvation is mentioned at the earliest, which was in principle exempt from taxes against the fulfillment of prepared rust service. This was linked to the fact that the leader, the naval army, was replaced by armored equestrian. In the middle of the 13th century fortified castles began to be erected around the central parts of the empire. The castles, which housed permanent herds, became the focal points for the medieval administration and the county administration. Holding of counties became increasingly important from a power political and economic point of view (compare counties).

Social and economic conditions

Sweden was an agricultural country during the Middle Ages, and most of the population lived within the framework of farm households. The ecclesiastical institutions and worldly salvation financially based their position on land ownership. The goods could exceptionally consist of larger farms in large-scale operation, but most of the salvation land, as well as the land owned by the krone, consisted of smaller farms used by farmers. With the emergence of the savages during the earlier Middle Ages, the proportion of agricultural land increased sharply. However, a large part of the peasants remained self-sufficient and taxable, and more than half of the land was held by self-pending farmers (tax land) during the late Middle Ages. However, there were major regional differences; In Norrland, as in Dalarna, Värmland and Finland, tax land dominated.

During the first Christian centuries, there were still slaves; However, slavery was unprofitable and definitely disappeared in the early 1300s. Life traits were never introduced in Sweden, and on the local things, the Swedish farmers, taxpayers and farmers, had a significant influence.

The period up to the beginning of the 1300s was expansive with extensive new cultivation activities. A Swedish peasant colonization took place in Finland's coastal areas, as well as in Norrland and the southern Swedish forest areas. The increased importance of trade, as well as the need for administrative centers, contributed to the growth of cities, especially in the latter part of the 13th century. Although most of the cities were small, they played an important economic role as centers for trade and crafts.

Sweden was affected by the deaths of 1350, which during the remainder of the 1300s was followed by recurrent pest outbreaks. This led to population decline, which, probably along with other factors, caused the destruction of farmland. During the latter part of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century, landowners were therefore forced to lower the land of the natives. This led to financial problems for especially smaller landowners and a concentration of property holdings to certain wealthy families. In this research, this process has become known as the "late medieval agricultural crisis".

A general economic recovery took place from the middle of the 14th century, and Swedish exports of butter and meat became significant during the late Middle Ages. One industry of great economic importance throughout the Middle Ages was the rock handling, also the export-oriented. The production of iron and copper created a group of well-to-do miners in the Bergslagen.

The resources of the royal power

The financial conditions for state power were expanded and changed during the 13th century. Land ownership was an important financial prerequisite for kings and other great men at the earliest. Uppsala fate was the estate complex that came with the royal office. This included the villagers, who during the 1000s and 1100s were support points for the royal power. The king's right to a guest, ie maintenance during their travels, and the lead was relieved by the end of the 13th century of permanent taxes, which rested on the land that was not saved. These standing taxes, however, were insufficient for the needs of the state power, and during the Middle Ages there were also a series of extraordinary taxes, which often also burdened the earth of salvation.

Maintaining peace in the kingdom was regarded as one of the king's most important tasks. Shares of fines therefore became an important source of income for the royal power, as well as an important means of power against the great men. The royal power and the church exerted a great influence, partly in competition with each other, over the judiciary. A national laws currently in force are known from the Birger Jarl time (see edsöreslagstiftning). During the 13th century and the beginning of the 13th century, the provincial laws were added and by the middle of the 13th century the national and city laws were valid. Behind the legislation lay the royal power and partly also the church. A more aristocrat-friendly version of the national team was added in 1442. (See landscape law, national team, Kristofers national team and city ​​law.)

Conflicts of faith and opposition

The early 1300s were characterized by continued struggles within the ruling dynasty. When Magnus Ladulås died in 1290, his son Birger was already elected king, and a guardianship consisting of great men under the leadership of Marshal Torgils Knutsson held power until 1302. Then a power struggle broke out between the king and his brothers, the dukes Erik and Valdemar, who captured the king in Håtunaleken 1306. After King Birger's release in 1310 the kingdom was temporarily divided between the brothers. The king, however, in Nyköping's guest ban in 1317 imprisoned and killed his brothers but was himself expelled after a rebellion.

In 1319, Duke Eric's three-year-old son Magnus was elected Swedish king; by inheritance on his mother he also became Norwegian king that year. In connection with the election, the so-called freedom letter was issued, in which the chiefs, as guardians, set limits on the king's personal exercise of power, including guarantees against arbitrary taxation and prohibition against using foreigners in the council and the county administration. Magnus Eriksson probably reached the age of 1331, and his reign came to be characterized by state financial problems and conflicts with the Swedish Council aristocracy. Skåne and Blekinge were acquired in 1332 through a costly mortgage redemption, and around 1350 an expansive policy resumed east towards Novgorod. This stifled finances. Extra taxes were levied, the church privileges were revoked and loans were taken against the security of the Crown's land and income. The situation was made worse by the death of the poet and the subsequent agricultural crisis. The contradictions between council and royal power were accentuated. One of the most eloquent aristocratic opponents against the king was Saint Birgitta. Rebellion broke out in 1356, and the kingdom was divided for a time between the king and his eldest son Erik, who died already in 1359. To this came foreign political adversaries: in 1360 the Scanian landscapes were lost to Denmark and the following year also Gotland. The domestic contradictions led to Magnus Eriksson being deposed, and a Swedish main man group made sure that Albrekt of Mecklenburg was elected Swedish king in 1363–64. Allegedly, however, in 1371, a royal declaration was in favor of the aristocracy. During his reign, however, a large number of German noblemen were also used in the county administration. Large parts of the country's resources were controlled by the nobility, both the old Swedish and the immigrant German. A storm such as Bo Jonsson (Grip) during this time could build up a significant economic and power political position. When Albrekt sought to assert the status of the kingdom, this led to a new aristocratic uprising.

The first stage of the Union era

The Swedish chiefs were supported by the Danish-Norwegian regent Margareta, and Albrekt was defeated at Falköping in 1389. In practice, the three countries were linked together under a regent, but with Denmark as the leading power. The unity between the kingdoms was emphasized by several members of the three national councils when Margareta's young relative Erik of Pomerania was crowned in Kalmar in 1397. The Union idea was a political reality during the rest of the Middle Ages, although the Union rarely worked in practice (see also the Kalmar Union). The Swedish parliament passed through Kalmar assurances about its position as the leading political force in Sweden. Margaretas and Erik of Pomerania's time are characterized by settlements with the former empire; inter alia a reduction of salvation goods was carried out, which, however, mainly affected the lower salvation and church institutions. Newly introduced, burdensome taxes and stricter administration for the peasants led to dissatisfaction, as did King Erik's policy to a large extent to make use of foreign bailiffs, who forced Swedish salvation from the salaried county administration. All in all, this led to the widespread Engelbrekts rebellion 1434–36, and the end result was that Erik was deposed and expelled.

Political Anarchy in the Late Middle Ages

Continued political development in the late Middle Ages was filled with civil disputes and frequent regime changes. During certain periods, the Union kings were also recognized in Sweden: Christophers of Bavaria (1441–48), Kristian I (1457–64), Hans (1497–1501) and Kristian II (1520–23). Political power lay mainly with the supreme council aristocracy, which was, however, divided by bitter factional struggles. An important constellation was centered around the Oxenstierna and Vasa families. From the mid-1400s, the Axel Sons (of the Tott family) and the Trolle family also came to form a powerful faction, striving to maintain the Union.

A Swedish nobleman, Karl Knutsson (Farmer), was king in three rounds (1448–57, 1464–65 and 1467–70). During certain royal periods, the country was ruled by the governors. This office became of great importance after Karl Knutsson's death. The three heads of state Sten Sture d.a. (1470–97, 1501–03), Svante Nilsson Sture (1504–11) and Sten Sture dy (1512–20) were all opponents of the Union. They developed the office into one which, in all but the name, was the king's and thereby forbade Gustav Vasa's kingdom. Sten Sture i.e. came to power after Karl Knutsson's death, and in the battle of Brunkeberg in 1471 the Union king Kristian I and his Swedish ally were defeated. For a short period, Sten Sture's opponents managed to get King Hans recognized in Sweden in exchange for a strong position for the council aristocracy. In the 1490s, war was added,

The conflicts with the Union King and the domestic opposition culminated under Sten Sture dy Kristian II, who worked for a more centralized state power, was allied with Archbishop Gustav Trolle, who was deposed in 1517 by Sten Sture dy Kristian II, defeated his Swedish opponents in 1520 and was subsequently recognized as Swedish King. In a large settlement with the opponents, in November 1520 he had to execute hundreds of people (see Stockholm's massacre). This was followed by Gustav Vasa's rebellion, the expulsion of Kristian II and the final collapse of the Nordic Union.

The political games of the Middle Ages were essentially settlements between the royal power and the leaders in spiritual and worldly salvation, often with the national council as a political power base. In the late Middle Ages, however, nonviolent groups became increasingly prominent as political actors. During the Engel breach rebellion and the ongoing civil war in the 15th century, the peasants played an important military role and could thus become a significant pressure group. Standing meetings, precursors to the Riksdag, with participants of representatives of peasants and bourgeoisie also had a certain importance, including in support of Sten Sture d.ä.

A growing central power

In order to reach a military decision in the fight against the king of the Union, Gustav Vasa turned to Lübeck and, with the help of it, was able to conquer Stockholm in 1523. The election of Gustav as king in June of that year became a guarantee for Lübeck for given loans and favorable trade privileges. This meant a strong dependence on Lübeck but also its support for a Swedish state outside a union. Before the threat of 1523 also deposited in Denmark Kristian II soon began a collaboration with the new king Fredrik I, whereby an attack by Kristian 1531 could be averted. The throne battle in Denmark after Fredrik's death in 1533 (see the county's feud) gave Sweden the opportunity to break Lübeck's strong grip on trade. Relations with the new Danish king Kristian III were deepened by the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1541.

Domestic politics, Gustav Vasa's early elaborate program to strengthen the central power had considerable difficulties to overcome. Sweden was still characterized by strong regional structures, by autonomous state corporations, with the council aristocracy as a counterpart to a strong prin- cipal power and by the economic weakness of the central power. A crucial step towards the dissolution of the old council front was Västerås meeting in 1527, where the nobility invested in the central power. The worldly power of the bishops was broken, and the revocation of the great revenue and property of the church began. When the reduction was completed about 15 years later, the krona's economy had been significantly strengthened. A foundation was laid for central government offices, which, after foreign models, were modernized during the so-called German period 1538–42, at the same time as the krona's legally justified requirements were tightened.The Dacke feud out in Småland in 1542 as the culmination of the regional protests that started with the valley uprising in 1524–25 and followed by new insurgency movements in Dalarna, Västergötland and Småland (1527, 1529, 1531, 1536 and 1539).

Since the Dacke rebellion was crushed in 1543, the road was open to a centrally controlled Sweden. Important steps in the continued strengthening of the central power became the Riksdag in Västerås in 1544, which made Sweden hereditary kingdom, the formation of a large, recruited military force and new fortifications, which tightened the grip on the kingdom. Particularly a group of leading noble men, the so-called royal kings, were involved in the central and regional power apparatus, where the Chamber exercised a strong control over the kingdom and its finances.

Despite a growing population, reflected by a strong colonization in the marginal areas since the end of the 14th century, the kingdom in 1560 had a maximum of 0.8 million residents. The character of a peasant community was strong, while the small towns accounted for less than 5 percent of the population. The mining, concentrated to Dalarna, Västmanland and Närke, was cherished by the krona and was responsible for most of the exports, mainly in the form of osmund iron.

The most striking feature of the national social structure in Europe was the dominance of self-sufficient peasants (tax farmers). In the 1520s, about 62 percent in the kingdom (45 in the “Swedish” part of the state) was self-sufficient, while the noble earth comprised 17 (24), the church earth 17 (25) and the crown earth 4 (6) percent of the farms. The reduction of church land meant that most of it went to the Crown or Gustav Vasa as a private person, while a smaller part went to nobles. Despite a limited numerical (400–500 adult males), the nobility, mainly in the Göta and Mälar landscapes, owned a lot of land, but with a great range between a small high-nobility group and an earth-poor knapadel. The Finnish landscapes, except in the south-west, and the northern ones were completely dominated by tax farmers.

The Reformation's breakthrough in Sweden took place in several stages. The first at Västerås meeting in 1527 was driven by the fact that the king clearly saw the financial gains made possible by the Reformers' proclamation. A definite break with the pope power and changes in doctrine and cult did not come until the 1530s (see Swedish Church). Another result of the early Reformation was cultural disarmament and isolation, which particularly affected the school system. However, contacts were maintained with German evangelical universities, and the ideals of humanism had a certain impact in domestic education, while Renaissance culture was mainly reflected in the construction activities of Erik XIV and Johan III.

Constitutional struggle and foreign policy activation

Prior to his death, Gustav Vasa had set up hereditary dukes, intended to give younger royal sons a princely livelihood and to strengthen the power of the Vasa family. Erik XIV saw the duchy judgments as a threat to the royal power and sought through Arboga's articles in 1561 to limit the dukes' powers. However, this did not prevent Duke Johan from engaging in the Baltic power struggle and against Erik's ban marrying Polish royal daughter Katarina Jagellonica. The result was an armed settlement and Johan's imprisonment in 1563. The actions were carried out with the support of the nobility, but during the Nordic seven-year war(1563-70) relations between the king and the council aristocracy deteriorated. Relentless secretaries and noblemen outside the old power elite were favored. The assassinations in 1567 and Erik's marriage to Karin Månsdotter mark the highlights of this power struggle, which in 1568 led to Erik XIV being overthrown and succeeded by Johan III. This gave the nobles improved privileges in 1569, and the counties and freedoms introduced by Erik were enlarged.

Hereditary counties were introduced through duke reviews as well as counties and free lordships. Goods were also donated with hereditary rights, from 1604, however, subject to reservation. These feudal elements were counteracted by the fact that the conferences were rarely territorially collected, and the administrative grip of the krone was tightened by the governors and from 1634 the new governors' rulings (counties). The duchy disappeared in 1622.

One problem for Johan III was the position of brother Brother Duke built up in his mid-Swedish duchy. Another important issue was about religion. Through his marriage to Catherine, Johan had found sympathy for several sides of Catholicism and approached it during the 1570s, which drew strong criticism. Church politics was driven to a decisive moment when Johan's son Sigismund, who was elected Polish king in 1587, inherited the Swedish crown in 1592 and was expected to support the counter-Reformation. Uppsala's decision in 1593, in close cooperation between Duke Karl, the Swedish Council and the priesthood, gave Sweden a Lutheran confessional church, and the decision's approval became a condition for the king's coronation.

Sigismund's unclear directive on the board since leaving Sweden in 1594 led to a power struggle, where Duke Karl, with the support of the unruly positions, was taken over. The king's attempt to regain power with the help of the national council failed through the Battle of Stångebro in 1598. His provision in 1599 and the hard-fought settlement with the council aristocracy (including through Linköping's massacre in 1600) marked a total victory for the duke, who formally assumed the royal title from 1604 (Karl IX).

The cautious foreign policy that characterized Gustav Vasa's government was changed in its opposite in the 1560s. The disintegration of the rule of law began a race between the neighbors on its Baltic territory. When Sweden won Reval with Harrien, Järwen and Wierland in 1561, this initiated a policy aimed at control of trade between Russia and Western Europe and challenged the leading Baltic naval power Denmark. This led to the outbreak of the Nordic seven-year war in 1563, where Lübeck and Poland joined the Danish side. The war ended in 1570 in the sign of exhaustion, and Sweden was forced to pay a large ransom for the Älvsborg conquered by the Danes.

Johan III approached Denmark and especially Poland but became involved in a war with Russia in 1570, which with some pause went to peace in Teusina in 1595 (see Russian-Swedish war). Russia recognized Narva, conquered in 1581, as well as Estonia in its entirety as Swedish and accepted a national border drawn through Karelia. As a result of the conflict with Sigismund, several unsuccessful attempts were made to conquer Livland in 1600–05.

One step in the conflict with Poland was also the launch of Karl IX 's sons as Russian throne candidates during the so-called Great Disarray (1604–13). Under the leadership of Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish troops temporarily seized Moscow in 1610. In the end, Novgorod succeeded in forcing Stolbova Peace in 1617, which secured the Swedish possession of Ingermanland and Kexholm County. The activation of Sweden's foreign policy under Karl IX was perceived as challenging by Denmark and led to the Kalmar War in 1611–13. The war showed that Denmark was still a leading Baltic sea power, and the new "Älvsborgs ransom" prescribed in Knäredfreden in 1613 again illustrated how vulnerable Sweden was in the west.

The power of politics takes shape

When Gustav II Adolf succeeded his father in 1611 during a fiery war, something of a political system change took place. Through a king's assurance, he was bound to cooperate with councils and states. The National Council was given a clearly assigned role in the National Board. It became a rule that the decisions of the states were sought on issues of war, peace, taxation and discharge. As a result, the Riksdag became part of a political decision-making process, which nevertheless provided ample room for a personal royal power.

The Fourth Kingdom Day was a reflection of the standing society that took shape during the 13th century. By privileged privileges in 1612, further improved in 1644, the nobility received a number of economic favors and preference for all higher offices. However, significant deviations from privileges were made during the entire great power period (1611-1718). But numerous high-profile states could build great fortunes, manifested in magnificent castles, and play a prominent political role. At the same time, the number of nobles increased by new breeding from about 450 to 2,500 adult men. The clergy also played a growing role in a state ideology in which church and worldly power were strongly integrated. The dual loyalties of the priests, as spokesmen for their congregation and as a spokesman for a divinely sanctioned authority, gave them a key role in many contexts.

The bourgeoisie gained greater importance through the krona's industrial policy initiatives. Numerous new cities were founded, Stockholm grew strongly and large merchants with a foreign background had wide international contacts. But the broad base of the booth was made up of retailers and artisans. The fact that the farmers were represented in a national body was unique in Europe. They could also act at the district council, and in matters of taxation and discharge, their district and parish committees played a major role. The existence of an orderly dialogue between the governed and the governed explains the absence of peasant uprisings during a period marked by the growing demands of the state power and numerous revolts in other countries.

The political system shift in Sweden in 1611 was also on a more personal level. The leader of the High Court, Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, and Gustav IIAdolf both sought to modernize and transform Sweden into one of the world's most respected and feared state. This superpower political vision was inspired by the Gothic history of tradition, conveyed through higher and lower education. Uppsala University flourished with active royal support, and three new universities were founded until 1668. Colleges were created in all diocesan cities, and literacy increased markedly among ordinary men. Administratively there was a fairly good foundation, which was purposefully expanded in a way that is evident from the form of government in 1634. At the central level, new government offices were created, while uniform and regional bodies for civil, judicial and military administration were created. The viability of the system is evident from the fact that it still exists partly.

The military armament applied to all parts of the armed forces. A focus on Swedish war people instead of foreign recruits had both cost and reliability aspects. But great losses of mankind severely affected the male population, which is why lego troops came to play a major role in the war until the 1670s.

Despite a continuous increase in tax collection, with the peak around 1630, and growing tax collection in cash, the krona's financial base was rather weak. Therefore, a strong investment was made in a mercantilistic trade and business policy, with a sharp increase in exports as a result. This was based on both domestic capital, mainly from the high nobility, as well as technical innovations and capital from the outside, especially through German and Dutch immigrants. The new iron mills grew outside the old mining area and made Sweden a world leader as an exporter of iron bars and iron cannons. Copper exports also played a major role, as did the trade in tar, pitch, pot ash and other forest products. Even for the livelihood of the individual people, the importance of the forest land increased greatly; a strong population increase characterized the national forest areas.

However, the population potential was the weakest link in the Swedish superpower building. The population can be estimated to have increased to 1.1 million in 1625 (of which 0.3 in the Finnish national part). Until 1721 there was a certain increase, despite wars and deaths, to which were added the acquisitions of Danish and Norwegian landscapes. The population then stood at about 1.5 (1.12) million.

Active foreign policy was targeted by the Stolbova peace against Poland. Riga and all of Livland were conquered in 1621-26, after which the war transferred to Polish Prussia ended with the downturn in Altmark in 1629, which gave Sweden Livland and for six years Prussian ports with rich customs revenue. Meanwhile, the Great German War had brought the troops of the Emperor and the Catholic League up to the Baltic. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War (1618–48) could therefore be portrayed as a preventive defense war before the Riksdag which gave its sanction. A number of interacting factors have certainly been behind Gustav II Adolf's decision and also behind previous war companies; this applies to trade and power politics, religious and personal greed in the Gothic spirit.

At the ascent of Pomerania in 1630, Sweden lacked allies, but a subsidy treaty with France in 1631 improved the situation. The victory at Breitenfeld the same year, a result of Gustav IIAdolf's innovative art of war meant a real turning point. The political objective grew with success, but the king's death at Lützen in 1632 changed the situation completely. For Oxenstierna who took over the management, the goal became a reasonable "satisfaction" for Sweden's efforts, which required an additional 16 years of war with major human and economic initiatives. The war in Germany was also used to inflict a severe blow on Denmark in 1643–45. The peace in Brömsebro gave Sweden Gotland, Ösel, Jämtland with Härjedalen and Halland (in 30 years), while the Westphalian peace in 1648 made, among other things. Bremen-World, Wismar, Western Pomerania and some of Hinterpommern Swedish. Frederna highlighted that Sweden was now one of Europe's great powers.

By Gustav IIAdolf's death was inherited by his six-year-old daughter Kristina. The guardian government, active during her reign of authority until 1644, was dominated by Axel Oxenstierna and his family group. The Queen then partially pushed this aside, favoring a number of "new men". In the long term, the financial crisis that was growing through the wars was exacerbated by the extensive purchases of salvation and donations that were used to solve more acute problems. Together with the old estate of salvation, the nobility in 1654 had revenue from about 60% of the country's farms, a tripling of 60 years. This created growing social tensions, culminating in the Riksdag in 1650. The nobility then pushed the nobility back, and Kristina was able to exploit the situation to have her cousin Karl Gustav recognized as a successor to the throne. He therefore became king in 1654 upon her abdication and transition to Catholicism.

The Carolinian era

At the Riksdag in 1655, Karl X Gustav enforced a decision on partial reduction, which had been required by the saints since 1644. At the same time, a decision was made to start a war again, this time against Poland. Great initial success was followed by growing difficulties when Russia first and in 1657 also declared war. The attack on Jutland and the bold train across the Belt led to the victory peace in Roskilde in February 1658, when Skåne, Blekinge, Bornholm, Bohuslän and Trondheim counties attacked Sweden. When the war was renewed as early as August of that year, the aim was to completely engulf the Danish kingdom, but a number of states rushed to the Danes' help. This was mainly the case for the Netherlands, which now dominated the Baltic Sea trade and felt threatened by Sweden's attempt to gain control of the Baltic Sea inlet. Sweden's situation was already precarious when the king quickly died in 1660,

The guardian government during Karl XI 's minority (1660-72), with Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie as national chancellor, became more dependent on council and parliament than the former. The solution to the country's difficult financial problems was the main issue. Thrift was a benchmark but was not enough, which led to the abandonment of its cautious foreign policy and the covenant with France in 1672. This led to Sweden becoming involved in war with Brandenburg, Denmark and the Netherlands in 1674–75 (see the Scanian War). The war revealed major shortcomings, especially at the navy. All possessions in Germany were lost, the enemy gained control of the seas, Skåne and Blekinge were lost in 1676, but after the battle at Lund the same year the initiative passed to the Swedish army. When peace was concluded in 1679 with the restoration of the status quo, Skåne was almost recaptured.

The experiences of the war in 1674–79 were crucial for the reorganization of Sweden's finances, military power and board, which received its political confirmation of the Riksdag in 1680 and 1682. A decision was made on guardianship, on reducing all censorship and to put the reorganization of the armed forces into the king's hands. The power of legislation and foreign policy was also entrusted to him. The Council was most recently assigned the role of royal referral body. The fact that a monarchy could take shape without a tiring power struggle was due not least to the fact that the lower office seat and the officers saw the reduction as a means of obtaining a safe income in the service of the krona through the division work that was built up. The gentlemen felt a far stronger confidence in an effective and powerful kingship than a multi-headed "gentlemen's power".

Although the threat to the taxpayers' freedom earlier in the 17th century was exaggerated, the reduction meant that their actual ownership felt more secure. The right of ownership was satisfactory, which is illustrated by the fact that thousands of krone farmers quickly used the opportunity for tax purchases when this became possible in 1701, despite the high price.

The establishment of the one-world further strengthened the centralist structures and at the same time completed the professionalisation of the entire administrative apparatus which began at the beginning of the century. During the 17th century, one of the crown and the church's jointly driven civilization process, with the Lutheran house-board as the overall norm, also achieved noticeable results on the more mental level. The coarse violence mentality, which did show significant differences between different parts of the empire, gradually eased.

The strategy behind Karl XI 's reforms was clearly defensive. This involved the formation of the standing armed forces (see the division), where recruitment was handed over to the recruits of the Roots and the armies, as well as foreign policy. This was based on close cooperation with England, the Netherlands and Holstein – Gottorp to protect Sweden against Danish attempted raids. At the same time, the eastern flank of the kingdom was exposed, which became evident in 1700 when a coalition of Russia, Saxony and Denmark attacked Sweden. The Great Nordic War (1700–21), thus initiated, initially offered rapid success for the young Karl XIIand his army. It soon brought Sweden into a more offensive phase, aimed at control of Poland, which was in staff union with Saxony, and a continuation of the country's expansion, not least trade policy. A decisive turning point came with the defeat of Poltava and the subsequent capitulation of the army in 1709. Denmark declared war again. The Baltic provinces as well as Finland were conquered by the Russians, and the German possessions fell into the hands of Prussia and Hanover, who had joined forces with Sweden's enemies. To improve Sweden's prospects in the peace negotiations that have already begun, Karl XII1718 a conquest of Danish Norway. The killing shot at Fredriksten meant the final collapse of the Swedish great power. In the peace 1719–21, Sweden was forced to relinquish Viborg, along with most of Karelia and the Baltic provinces to Russia, parts of Pomerania to Prussia and Bremen-World to Hanover.

The collapse of the Swedish great power has often been attributed to Karl XII 's person and abuse. Deeper, however, the collapse should have been a matter of time. The Swedish great power rested on an overly weak resource base, which also resulted in neighboring states such as Russia, Prussia and Denmark undergoing a vigorous modernization process and saw different parts of the scattered Swedish empire as the primary expansion target. Conversely, during the early 1600s, the weaker power structure in neighboring countries is likely to give a partial explanation for Sweden's achieved superpower position.

The Age of Freedom (1719–72)

At the Riksdag in 1719 the monarchy was abolished, and a new form of government gave great power to the council and the Riksdag. This was marked even more strongly in 1720, when Ulrika Eleonora, who succeeded brother Charles XII, handed over the crown to her husband, Fredrik by Hessen-Kassel (Fredrik I). With 1720 form of government and 1723 parliamentary order, the king was reduced to the chairman of the council, while power was shared between the council and the four-day kingdom. Under Council President Arvid Horn, the Council dominated, but since Horn overthrew the Riksdag in 1738–39, Parliament was the center of power. By licensing the national council, ie. set aside them for alleged misconduct, a majority of the parliament could also decide the composition of the council.

The group that overthrew Horn's regime came to be called hats, while their opponents were called hats (see the hat party and the mouse party). However, they were not parties in our time. They constituted groupings among the Riksdagmen but were little active between the Riksdag. The hats and hats had different views in e.g. foreign and fiscal policy, but in many issues the parliamentarians were divided along other lines. Often, e.g. agricultural interests in the priesthood and nobility stand together with the peasants against officials and citizens. The decision order, in which three positions must be agreed, paved the way for a lively political activity. A political game reminiscent of modern parliamentarism developed, first among the higher classes, but over time the peasant political strength also grew. The result was also increased political consciousness among broad groups in society. However, there was no basic idea of democracy. Political opponents were sometimes thrown in jail,

The years 1738-65 put the hats in power and led an active foreign policy. After the Great Nordic War, all the conquests of the great power had been lost except for Svenska Pommern and the Wismar pledged in 1803, but in 1741 they sought revenge against Russia. However, the peace of 1743 meant land resignations in Finland and that Russia dictated the choice of successor to the childless Fredrik I: Adolf Fredrik, relative of the tsar's house. At the end of the war, the last great Swedish peasant uprising occurred, the valley uprising in 1743 (the "great valley dance"). The rebels marched to Stockholm with demands for tax relief, punishment for the military leaders and continued anti-Russian politics, but were beaten in a massacre in central Stockholm. Despite the defeat of the men, the regime was shaken, and the policy towards the peasants became more cautious.

The farmers' position was also improved by good agricultural economic conditions. A general increase in the population can be clearly seen in the statistics, which flow abundantly from the Established Table Board in 1749. Above all, the marginal groups of the countryside grew up as croppers and hutters. Farmer households became an elite within the all-powerful. Many krone farmers bought their farms from the state.

Agricultural expansion and population growth form the background to the land reforms, which with the great shift from 1757 slowly changed the landscape. The peasants' peas were gathered in contiguous estates, and sometimes the village buildings were also dissolved, although the radical changes first came with the single shift (from 1803) and the legal shift (from 1827). The farmers themselves were driven to implement the parcels, and their improvements in farming methods and new cultivation meant more to the development of agriculture than some of the more spectacular reform attempts by landlords.

In other ways, the time was also marked by the progress of non-religious groups. The nobility's monopoly on tax-advantaged salvation land was slowly undermined. Its monopoly on high office was questioned. An increasing number of gentlemen were adopting a noble lifestyle without being noble. The non-noble founders, such as non-noble officials, utility and manufacturing owners and academics, were a new middle class that did not fit within the confines of the standing community. By the middle of the 18th century, they were more than the nobility and the priesthood together but did not represent the Riksdag.

Metallex exports constituted the backbone of foreign trade. A government investment in science and technology favored mining and manu- facturing. With the 1739 Establishment Fund, the Hats provided state support for textile, metal, tobacco and other manu- factures in an attempt to make the country less import-dependent. With the product poster in 1724, foreign ships were prohibited from importing goods other than their own country to Sweden. Foreign trade on Swedish ships grew, and in 1731 was established in the Gothenburg East India Company.

The hats continued the active foreign policy. On the peaceful side was the Lapp codicill 1751, an agreement with Denmark-Norway that secured the rights of the Sami on both sides of the border. But the warlike ambitions led 1757 into Sweden in the seven-year war (1756–63) on the continent. The war in Pomerania against Prussia became a military failure, and Sweden made peace without frontier changes in 1762. The dissatisfaction with the hat regime grew.

The hats were also blamed for rising inflation. The so-called younger caps propagated for thrift and against the financial regulations. At the Riksdag 1765–66 they took power. Manufacturing support was withdrawn, and many regulations, such as the bottom line of the compulsory trade, were abolished. Hats and mice regimes then replaced each other during the last hectic years of freedom. When the freedom of the press and the principle of publicity was constitutionally protected in 1766, the political debate became lively than ever before. The unruly positions openly criticized the privileges of the nobility.

Gustavian times (1772–1809)

Fredrik I and Adolf Fredrik had accepted their roles as constitutional monarchs, but the latter's intention Lovisa Ulrika worked to expand the kingdom. Her son, Gustav III, in 1772 the period of freedom ended through a coup, which severely curtailed the power of the parliament and increased the king's (1772 form of government). The king appeared to claim to be opposed to party and state oppositions - the parties as well as the names themselves hats and caps were banned - but in fact supported the nobility and followed the economical, liberal policies of the younger caps in the economy. Thus, restrictions on grain trade were eased, and foreign religious acquaintances were allowed to settle in the country in an attempt to attract foreign knowledge and capital. Cultural life was favored by Gustav, among others. with the Swedish Academy (1786) and through efforts for theater and architecture. But the political opposition sat tight; In 1774 the freedom of the press was restricted.

In 1788 Gustav threw the country into war with Russia (peace 1790 without border changes; see Russian-Swedish war). The dissatisfaction with the war led to a mutiny, the Anjali League, among noble officers at the front, which, however, played the king's patriotic propaganda in his hands and increased his popular support. In 1789 he implemented the Association and Security Act with the support of the unruly courts. This meant that the national council was abolished and the king came closer to the total monarchy. The social development that the coup in 1772 was intended to stop now had political impact instead. The taxpayers' ownership of their land was established, as were the right of the peasants to buy their farms, and the nobility's privileges on office and salvation land were cut.

A noble conspiracy led to Gustav III being murdered by JJ Anckarström in 1792. Under the son Gustav Adolf's authority, Duke Karl and his adviser GA Reuterholm led an authoritarian regime. In 1796, Gustav IV Adolf became an official, confirmed the Association and Security Act and continued his father's monarchical board. He strongly distanced himself from the ideas of the French Revolution and joined foreign policy in the anti-French camp. This was also the case for trade policy reasons, and Sweden entered the war against Napoleon France in 1805. Swedish Pomerania was lost, and in 1808 Sweden was attacked by Russia, currently allied with France. Russian troops soon occupied all of Finland and the Norrland coast to Umeå (see Finnish War). In peace in Fredrikshamn in 1809, all land east of the Gulf of Bothnia and the Torne River and Åland were abandoned. The dissatisfaction with Gustav IV Adolf's war policy had previously led to a military coup, and the king was forced to abdicate in March 1809.

New state of affairs

After the coup d'etat in March 1809, a parliament was convened which decided to exclude Gustav IV Adolf and his heirs from the succession. Instead, his uncle, Duke Charles, was elected king under the name of Karl XIII(1809-18), however, only since the Duke approved a form of government decided by the states, whose basic idea was the pursuit of a balance of power between royal power and parliament. The 1809 form of government drew inspiration from the ideas of state law of the time - most notably Montesquieu's distinction between executive, legislative and judicial power - but also built on the positive and negative experiences of Sweden's own history. The executive power was entrusted to the king, who would be obliged to listen to the minister responsible for parliament. However, he was not bound by their advice; In other words, the government's responsibility was legal, not political. There was no talk of parliamentarism. Legislative power was equally divided between King and Parliament. The tax authority reserved the stands, which also controlled the Riksbank and the National Debt Office. The judicial power would be exercised by indecent judges. At the same time, a number of civil liberties and rights were enacted: security against arbitrary arrest, freedom of expression and expression, and an even more limited freedom of religion. All special censorship was abolished by a special freedom of print regulation. Despite demands for a more democratic representation of the people, the parliamentary day was maintained in the 1810's parliamentary order. The 1809 revolution thus did not result in any major democratic upheaval. The aristocratic-bureaucratic leadership layer held its positions both against the king and the parliament. The constitution, however, constituted an elastic framework that opened up new opportunities for further constitutional development. freedom of expression and expression as well as an even more limited freedom of religion. All special censorship was abolished by a special freedom of print regulation. Despite demands for a more democratic representation of the people, the parliamentary day was maintained in the 1810's parliamentary order.

Throne of choice and foreign policy system change

Then Karl XIIIwas old and without legitimate heirs, a successor must also be appointed. The election fell on the Norwegian commander, Prince Kristian August; it was hoped in this way to be able to persuade the Norwegians to voluntarily join Sweden. However, the prince, as a Swedish successor called Karl August, died a few months after his arrival in Sweden at a military exercise at Kvidinge Hed in Skåne (May 1810). A new throne election took place in August 1810 at a parliament in Örebro under the impression of the stirring Fersenska murder, which seemed to show that Sweden needed a strong man who could maintain the internal order and raise the country's international reputation. One such was offered in the French marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, whose candidacy was mediated by Lieutenant Carl Otto Mörner and supported by Foreign Minister Lars von Engeström. After Bernadotte was elected crown prince, he arrived in Sweden in the fall of 1810, adopted the name Karl Johan and became the country's real regent from the first moment. The supporters of the "French" party who enforced his election in hopes of thereby getting Napoleon's help to recapture Finland made him disappointed by instead implementing a foreign policy system change, whose core was consensus with Russia. Karl Johan and Tsar Alexander I agreed at a meeting in Turku in 1812 that Sweden would forever depreciate Finland against receiving Russian support for the acquisition of Norway. Sweden then participated under Karl Johan's leadership in the final match against Napoleon. After the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Crown Prince turned to Denmark, which in Kielfreden (January 1814) was forced to relinquish Norway to Sweden in exchange for Svenska Pommern. However, the Norwegians did not find themselves in this settlement over their heads, but in Eidsvoll on 17 May 1814, the Danish prince Kristian Fredrik elected king in an independent Norway and adopted his own constitution. However, after a short campaign, Karl Johan forced them into the union with Sweden through the Moss Convention (see Swedish-Norwegian Union). "1812 years of politics" meant that Sweden turned its back on its Baltic past in order to orient itself towards the south and west instead. The aspirations of power politics were screwed down, and financial interests were given priority.

Karl Johan time

Karl XIVThe Johan government (1818–44) initiated a long period of peaceful progress. Population growth, which began as early as the 18th century, was now taking off seriously. In 1815, the national population amounted to about 2.5 million, in 1850 3.5 and 1900 were 5.1 million. The population increase - with Esaias Tegnér's formulation a result of "the peace, the vaccine and the potatoes" - took place within the framework of a society dominated by low-productive agriculture and where as early as 1850 about 90% of the population lived in the countryside. It was mainly the landless subclass of the country that expanded, with the result that the gap between the proletariat and the besieged peasant class widened. In the same direction also appeared the successive shifts, which admittedly favored the new cultivation and thereby increased the nutritional space, but also reduced the living opportunities of the poor through the division of the peoples.

The government's economic policy was concentrated for a long time on the currency problems that were a legacy of the war years and which were solved in 1834 through a sharp devaluation. At the same time, efforts were made to expand a canal system for heavy transport, primarily the Göta Canal (1832), which was built by Baltzar von Platen with Karl Johan's energetic support.

In the cultural field, Karl Johansepoken was characterized by a literary flourishing without previous counterparts with poets such as Stagnelius, Tegnér, Geijer and Almqvist. The 1842 primary school statute laid the foundation for general public education.

Politically, Karl Johan, like other monarchs in the Europe of the Holy Alliance, sought stability, inward and outward. In parallel with the active reform activities, he pursued in the constitutional area a strictly conservative policy, which led to constant conflicts with the stronger and more aggressive liberal opposition, whose main language was LJ Hierta's 1830 newspaper Aftonbladet. His "sole rule" motivated Karl Johan with the word of government on the king's right to "rule alone the kingdom", while his liberal opponents invoked the restrictions on the king's exercise of power which also existed in the constitution. Finally, the monarch must give way and in 1840 accept the so-called departmental reform, which meant that the minister became heads of each department and thus strengthened his and the government's authority vis-ā-vis the king.

Liberal boom

Karl XIV Johan's son and successor Oscar I (1844–59) had, as a crown prince, made himself known for liberal views and was received with great expectations. As a regent, however, he was reluctant to relinquish any royal powers, especially after the bloody marching riots in Stockholm in 1848, an outflow of the pan-European revolutionary movement. However, during his reign the economic and social reform policy, later completed under Charles XV (1859-72), was continued with the help of, among others. Finance Minister JA Gripenstedt and Minister of Justice Louis De Geer. Step by step, the remaining restrictions on the individual's freedom of movement and business development were removed.

Fundamental was the decision at the 1853-54 parliament on state pedigrees and the construction of state telegraph lines. The idea was, by public funds, largely borrowed abroad, to create an infrastructure that is as favorable as possible for the private sector. Similar aims served the introduction of the stamp and decimal system. The liberation of market forces was promoted by the 1846 factory and craft regulations and the 1864 Business Freedom Ordinance, which abolished the oblique duty and gave every citizen the right to exercise any business catch anywhere. This made it possible to freely locate factories in the countryside. This was used, among other things. by the Nordic sawmill industry, which underwent rapid development during the 1850s,

Growth promotion also seemed to be the trade treaty enforced by Gripenstedt with France in 1865, which joined Sweden into the international free trade system. The 1849 educational reform gave the natural sciences and modern languages an increased place on the school schedule, thus adapting higher education to the needs of business. Other reforms were aimed at humanizing the judiciary, strengthening the position of women and expanding religious freedom. Penal code reforms 1855–64 abolished torment and disgraceful punishment. Women and men were granted equal inheritance rights in 1845, and an unmarried woman became a citizen at the age of 25 in 1858. In 1860, the right to transition from the Swedish Church to another Christian community was granted.

An old liberal demand for a contemporary constitution was realized under De Geere's leadership through the 1865-66 years of representational reform, thereby replacing the Fourth Kingdom Day with two equal-ranking chambers. The first chamber would be elected by the county council and the city council in the largest cities on the basis of the 1862 laws on municipal autonomy; for eligibility very good financial position was required. The second chamber was directly elected with terms of voting rights that excluded lower income earners but gave voting rights to most occupied farmers. The new parliamentary scheme, in a longer perspective, meant an adaptation of the constitutional regulations to the development from a state society to a class society that has taken place since the 18th century.

In foreign policy, Oscar I broke with his father's Russian-friendly line and chose an activist and Western power-friendly course. Scandinavism was encouraged and utilized for expansive purposes. During the Schleswig-Holstein War of 1848–50, Swedish-Norwegian troops were placed on Funen to protect the Danish national territory. Through personal diplomacy, the king tried to maneuver Sweden into the Crimean War (1853–56) and for this purpose signed the November Treaty in 1855 with Britain and France. The gain became the Åland Servitude, a provision in the Paris Peace of 1856 that Russia would not be allowed to fortify Åland. Karl XV also had strong Scandinavian sympathies and pledged in 1863 to the Danish-German war Fredrik VIIhelp defend the Ejder border. However, the Swedish government, where it focused on peaceful progress Gripenstedt played a leading role, refused to fulfill the king's promise. This meant a breakdown for Scandinavian foreign policy, while at the same time expressing the shift in power from the king to the government that took place.

The Oscars

Oscar IIThe government (1872-1907) was a period of major societal changes and strong intersections between old and new. Emigration, which began in earnest in the 1860s, culminated in the 1880s. A total of over 1 million Swedes emigrated during the years 1840-1930, most to the United States. Industrialization gained new momentum during the 1870s. thanks to the breakthrough of ferro-steel processes in iron and steel production. In conjunction with the expansion of the railway network, the ingot steel processes enabled the exploitation of new ore deposits, primarily in Norrbotten, and ore exports increased rapidly. From the 1890s, an explosive development took place in the pulp industry. In the engineering industry, successful companies grew on the basis of new inventions (LM Ericsson, ASEA, Bofors, SKF, AGA). The domestic market industries expanded in line with the ongoing modernization and commercialization of agriculture, which broke down the old self-sustaining pattern. As a result of the development of industry and communications, large groups of people were detached from the collective communities they previously belonged to and ended up in new, industrialized environments. There, they rarely found a new community in any of the popular movements - the revival movement, sobriety movement, labor movement or sports movement - which grew strongly in reaction to the old hierarchical society.

The policy was dominated during the first decades after the representation reform of the tug-of-war between the "gentlemen" in the first chamber and the second chamber dominated by the Lantmann party on defense and basic taxes. Like the King, the First Chamber Majority wanted to create a modern military conscience army by substantially extending the training time of the military. To agree to this, the Lantmanna Party demanded the abolition of "centuries-old injustice", primarily a relief from the basic tax and subdivision burdens of the peasant land. Because the chambers made contradictory decisions, the defense issue ended in a deadlock. A small step forward was taken through the so-called compromise in 1873, yet another through the 1885 defense decision, which increased the period of military service from 30 to 42 days, while the basic taxes were written off by 30%. A more definitive solution was implemented under the leadership of Prime Minister Erik Gustaf Boström in 1892 in the shadow of the incipient refreshment campaign in Finland and the deteriorating relationship with Norway. The rehearsal period was extended from 42 to 90 days, and the basic taxes and the divisional division would be abolished over a ten-year period. The reform was completed in 1901, when the Swedish defense was completely placed on the basis of the general military duty.

In the 1880s, Sweden was hit by an international agricultural crisis with sharp price cuts in cereals. The grain producers demanded protection duties and were supported by representatives of certain industries, including textile industry. The political dividing line was drawn between customs friends and free traders. The customs battle, which was conducted with seldom seen fierceness, resulted in the abandonment of free trade in favor of a moderate protectionism. The repercussions on the party system became significant. The Lantmanna Party was in 1888–95 split into the free-trade-friendly Old and the Customs-friendly New Landman Party. Customs friendliness usually went along with conservative views on other issues, while free traders tended to take left-wing positions. This gave rise to a new party structure around the turn of the century, which in its main features still exists. The Lantmann party developed into the dominant right-wing party in the second chamber. The free-trade peasants united with like-minded city representatives in the People's Party, which in 1900 was a member of the Liberal Assembly. The labor movement organized itself politically through the Social Democratic Labor Party (SAP) in 1889 and trade union through the National Organization (LO) in 1898.

Attacks on the Oscar public society came not only from the labor movement but also from the bourgeois cultural radicalism that broke through in the 1880s and among other things. appeared in Strindberg's socially critical authorship. During the 1890s a cultural conservative renaissance came, but the legacy of eighties life lived on and became a source of inspiration for both the bourgeois and the socialist left.

In the foreign policy field, Oscar II brought1872's ascension to the throne a course change away from the traditional friendship with France to an increasingly clear German orientation. The "conversion to Germanism" became noticeable in various areas: economics, science, culture, military. Good relations with Germany were considered to give Sweden-Norway security against a feared Russian expansion towards the ice-free ports on the Atlantic coast. Russian terror reached new heights in the 1890s under the impression of the crushing efforts in Finland and the debate about the so-called sawdust, which on weak grounds were assumed to be disguised Russian officers. Otherwise, the most acute foreign policy problem was the relationship with Norway, which has deteriorated sharply since the 1880s. The Union question also deeply interfered with Swedish domestic policy. Resistance to Norwegian independence requirements was strongest within the right, while liberals and social democrats were prepared to contribute to the smooth settlement of the Union. The dissolution of the union in 1905 meant a victory for the latter position and, in the longer term, also for Nordic cooperation.

The breakthrough of democracy

During the first two decades of the 20th century, political life was dominated by the closely intertwined issues of voting, parliamentary and defense. As early as the 1890s, an out-of-parliamentary voting rights movement with general and equal voting rights appeared on the program, with support mainly from socialists and radical liberals. The increase in conscription time gave the voting friends an argument that made a deep impression on the conservative camp ("a man, a voice, a rifle"). Around the turn of the century, most people considered voting reform as inevitable; however, opinions differed on its design. The left wanted to introduce general voting rights without restrictions and with the emphasis of power placed on the elected second chamber. The right, supported by some liberal peasants, wanted an extension of voting rights with guarantees of continued influence for the well-off. The electoral reform carried out by the Prime Minister and the right-wing leader Arvid Lindman in 1907–09 meant a victory for the latter line. It gave the men general voting rights to the Second Chamber, cut the number of votes in municipal elections to a maximum of 40 but, on the other hand, introduced proportional elections to both chambers and so-called 'dashes', which mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber's veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform. payout line that mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber's veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform. payout line that mainly affected lower income earners. The right retained power over the first chamber and a strong position in the second. The First Chamber's veto on constitutional issues effectively prevented a more radical constitutional reform.

The class contradictions continued to be large and became clear during the 1909 strike. The Second Chamber election in 1911 became a victory for the left, Lindman resigned and a liberal government was formed under Karl Staaff. At the same time, the growing contradictions put the defense issue on the agenda. According to his election promises, Staaff tried to hold back on defense spending. the construction of an already decided armor boat (the F-boat). The reaction from the defense-friendly right became violent and manifested itself, among other things. in Sven Hedin's pamphlet "A Warning Word" (1912) and in the farmer's train to the king, Gustaf V (1907-50), who in his courtyard figure supported the farmers' demands for defense reinforcements (February 1914). Staaff saw in the king's action a violation of the principles of parliamentarism and submitted his resignation application (see the courtyard crisis). A royal government official was formed under Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, who was able to remain until 1917 thanks to the peace peace between the parties following the outbreak of the First World War. Hammarskjöld pursued a strict neutrality policy, but through his uncompromising attitude he made a trade policy settlement with Britain difficult, and from 1916 increased dissatisfaction in the light of commodity shortages, inflation and rationing ("Hunger shield"). Discontent and class contradictions increased, and revolutionary moods spread. By breaking out of the Social Democratic Party, a Socialist Left Party was formed, which under varying party designations - first Sweden's Social Democratic Left Party, then Sweden's Communist Party, Sweden's Socialist Party ("Kilbom Communists"), the Left Party Communists,

In the spring of 1917 Hammarskjöld resigned, and after a left victory in the second parliamentary elections in the autumn, a liberal-social democratic coalition government was formed under Nils Edén, an event which is usually referred to as the definitive breakthrough of modern parliamentaryism. Impressed by Germany's defeat, in 1918–21, a constitutional reform was implemented that removed most of the remaining restrictions on political democracy. The women were given the right to vote for the second chamber, the strike line was abolished as was the forty-degree scale, which led to the first chamber's democratization. At the same parliament, an eight-hour working day was also decided.

Mellankrigstiden

During the 1920s, "Sweden's second heyday", there was a strong industrial expansion. Large companies such as Bofors, Separator, AGA, SKF, LM Ericsson, ASEA and Electrolux developed rapidly. Shipyards grew into a large industry, while Ivar Kreuger acquired close enough monopoly on the manufacture of safety toothpicks. The number of industrial workers increased, and the urban area's share of the population increased. The countryside was electrified and agriculture was mechanized, especially in the plains. The industrial progress was partly made possible by keeping down wages. The class differences were large, and the class contradictions were expressed in a troubled labor market with numerous labor conflicts.

In the political field, the fierce class struggle was reflected in a polarization between socialists and citizens. Liberals and social democrats, after the victory of democracy, no longer had any common interests in the social economy. In the social democracy demands were raised for socialization, the liberals guarded private ownership and free enterprise. The dividing line was no longer between right and left, but between a bourgeois and a socialist bloc. However, the contradictions within the bourgeois camp were too great for a joint bourgeois government to be formed. The right and liberals disagreed with the school and the defense. The issue of alcohol prohibition split in the context of a referendum in 1922 through the Liberal unification party into two parties, liberal and liberal, which, however, reunited in the People's Party in 1934. A new political force had been created through the Peasant League, which emerged from the peasant movement just before the war and established itself as a parliamentary party in 1921. The Social Democrats lacked their own majority, and as the only opportunity to govern the country, therefore, changing minority governments, often with narrow parliamentary support, remained. The center of gravity was postponed to the Riksdag, in particular the State Committee. In 1920 Hjalmar Branting formed the first purely social democratic government. He returned as head of government in 1921–23 and from 1924 until his death in 1925. The free-spirited leader CG Ekman ruled in 1926–28 and 1930–32 with the help of leaping majorities (“wave master policy”). and as the only option to govern the country, therefore, were changing minority governments, often with narrow parliamentary support. The center of gravity was postponed to the Riksdag, in particular the State Committee.

In 1930, Sweden was hit by the economic crisis with falling agricultural prices and rapidly rising unemployment. It took dramatic expression in the Ådal events in 1931 and the Kreugerk crash in 1932 and made the opinion ripe for a system change. The 1932 election led to great successes for the Social Democrats and the Peasant League, which represented the most severely affected groups, workers and peasants during the crisis. Per Albin Hansson formed a purely social democratic government with the fight against unemployment through active economic policy in the spirit of JM Keynes on the program. In May 1933, a crisis settlement was concluded between the Social Democrats and the Peasant League, which created a stable majority in the second chamber (the "cow trade"). The Social Democrats were able to carry out their crisis program against certain concessions to farmers on tariffs and agricultural subsidies. After a brief interplay with a pure peasant government in the summer of 1936 under Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp (the "holiday government"), in the autumn of 1936, a coalition government was formed between the two parties on a comprehensive social policy program, "the folk-home policy". However, most of them stopped at attacks because of the outbreak of World War II. But business cycles improved, largely thanks to the armaments, and unemployment declined. The social partners approached each other. The Saltsjöbads agreement in 1938 between the Swedish Employers' Association (SAF) and the National Organization (LO) regulated the forms of agreements and conflicts, and a consensus emerged which became the basis for the later so-called "Swedish model".

Sweden's security policy had clearly improved, as both Germany and Russia were greatly weakened by the First World War. Against this background, the 1925 defense decision was taken, which involved a major disarmament. Security was sought in the collective security promised by the League of Nations (NF), to which Sweden joined in 1920. Loyally, Sweden bowed to the NF's ruling in the Åland issue in 1921, which went in Finnish favor. During the 1920s, Sweden under Branting's leadership is a lively part of NF's work. When the NF showed its inability to meet the aggression policy of the Axis powers during the 1930s, a security policy review was inevitable. In 1936, Sweden, along with a number of other states, were declared unbound by the NF's sanctions obligations, and a new defense decision that year gave the armed forces some reinforcements, which especially benefited the Air Force. As compensation for NF, Sweden tried to organize a Nordic defense cooperation, but without success. The so-called Stockholm Plan on joint Swedish-Finnish defense of Åland in 1939 was stranded on Soviet resistance.

Sweden during the Second World War

At the outbreak of the war in 1939, the Swedish government issued a declaration of neutrality and recommended enhanced defense preparedness. Although there was no acute threat, the strategic situation was dramatically aggravated by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact on August 23, 1939. This was evident when the Soviet Union, during the autumn, took a first step towards incorporating the Baltic republics by forcing military bases and into ultimate forms require land exits of Finland. The subsequent winter war (November 30, 1939 - March 12, 1940) put Swedish foreign policy to the test. When Secretary of State Rickard Sandler, which advocated Swedish-Finnish cooperation on the Åland defense, did not receive support from the government's majority, the result was a government crisis and the formation of a unifying government with representatives of the four largest parties (December 13, 1939). The Prime Minister was Per Albin Hansson and the Foreign Minister became a professional diplomat, Christian Günther. The new government supported Finland in the form of humanitarian aid, credit and weapons supplies, and a Swedish volunteer force participated in the fighting. On the other hand, Britain's and France's request for a breakthrough for a rescue corps to Finland was rejected, taking into account the risk of a German counter-attack that would have made Scandinavia a war scene.

The German attack on Denmark and Norway in April 1940, Sweden faced German demands for transit through the country of troops and military equipment. As long as the war in Norway was going on, these demands were rejected, but after the fighting ended, the government felt compelled to allow unarmed German permits through transit between Germany and Norway and partly between southern Norway and Northern Norway, the so-called horseshoe traffic (June 1940). The decision on transit traffic became the beginning of a concession policy, which culminated when the government in June 1941 allowed the transit of a fully equipped division, the Engelbrecht Division, from Norway to Finland (see Midsummer crisis)). When the German war accident reversed in 1942–43, the course was changed. In July 1943, the Permit Agreement was terminated without Germany taking any hostile action. At the end of the war, foreign policy was increasingly adapted to the demands of the Allies. Iron ore exports to Germany were gradually cut, and in the autumn of 1944, all German-Swedish trade exchange ceased. Danish and Norwegian police forces received training in Sweden, and in the spring of 1945, Sweden was prepared to require military intervention in Norway and Denmark if required.

By the end of the war, Sweden, through effective economic and military preparedness and a realistic, sometimes undocumented neutrality policy, had managed to avoid being involved in combat operations. This was an advantage not only for Sweden itself, but also for the Allies, who could use Sweden as a sanctuary in the area dominated by Germany. This was especially true of the Danish and Norwegian resistance movements and of the Jewish refugees from Denmark who in 1943 applied for this. Thanks to effective crisis management, supply problems became less extensive than during the First World War. Rationing could not be avoided, and private motoring ceased almost entirely, but the population suffered neither from starvation nor from any other real need. The state of health was better and death rates lower than during the peacetime.

The remission policy against Germany during the first years of the war was subjected to undue criticism by a number of anti-Nazi newspapers, including the Gothenburg Trade and Maritime Magazine with Torgny Segerstedt as editor-in-chief and after all! published by Ture Nerman. The government responded with repressive measures such as confiscation and transport bans, and Karl Gerhard's review "Golden Rain" (1940), which contained the coup "The infamous horse from Troja" was banned by the police after pressure from the German legation. The following year, another critic of the concession policy, Vilhelm Moberg, published, "Ride tonight!" (1941). The book's parallels between resistance and apathy towards German demands in the 1650s and at the same time avoided being censored and received great attention. On the other hand, those who had a positive attitude to Germany, with explorer Sven Hedin in the lead, became increasingly difficult to assert themselves after the German defeat at Stalingrad and after information about the Holocaust began to reach the public. Instead, anti-Nazi messages in words and images became more and more common.

After the war, neutrality policy continued to be a key element of Swedish politics. The fact that the majority government was able to keep Sweden out of the Second World War was considered by many to be good. However, from the late 1980s, and especially after the publication of Maria-Pia Boëthius's critical study of Swedish politics in 1939–45, “Honor and Conscience” (1991), however, Swedish refugee policy, the remission towards Germany, the permittal traffic, restrictions in freedom of the press and the Swedish handling of Jewish assets during World War II have been recurring topics of debate.

welfare society

In July 1945, the assembly government was replaced by a purely social democratic government, led by Per Albin Hansson and after his death in 1946 by Tage Erlander. The period 1945–51 was given its political character by a powerful Social Democratic offensive to pursue the interrupted reform work during the war and to build a welfare society with full employment, more evenly distributed income and wealth, social security and economic efficiency. In a comparatively large party political agreement, decisions were made on, among other things, increased public pensions, general health insurance and a 9-year unit school (later primary school). However, there was a fierce dispute over the tax increases with which Finance Minister Ernst Wigforss wanted to finance the reforms. Particularly a residency tax on undivided estate was considered by the bourgeois to be confiscatory.

In the second chamber elections in 1948, the People's Party under Bertil Ohlin won great successes. The Social Democrats returned, but with little need kept the government. In 1951, Erlander was able to broaden his parliamentary ground by incorporating four peasant allies, including party leader Gunnar Hedlund, into the government. Social reforms were pursued and defended against a bourgeois ideological offensive, led by right-wing leader Jarl Hjalmarson. In the 1952 and 1956 elections, this policy resulted in losses for both government parties, but especially for the Farmer Union, which chose to leave the government in 1957, since the political interest has come to focus on the issue of public service pensions.

The end of the ATP battle meant a weakening of the Right and the People's Party and successes of the Peasant Association, which in 1958 changed its name to the Center Party, but above all a strengthening of the social democratic power position. At the same time, when the declining economic conditions of the early 1950s were transformed into strong production growth (the "record years"), conditions were created for further development of the welfare society. Child care, health care and the elderly were expanded; In addition, a general reduction in working hours, a 4-week holiday and extension of upper secondary schools, universities and colleges were implemented. In parallel with the social reforms, work was underway on a modernized constitution. Elections for single-chamber kingdom day were first conducted in 1970 (compare single-chamber reform). Parliamentaryism, which has been applied in practice since 1917, was established in the 1974 form of government. The monarch's task was limited to representing the country. Female succession was introduced in 1980.

In 1973, the aged monarch Gustaf VI Adolf passed away and was succeeded by his grandson Carl  XVI Gustaf. At the parliamentary elections that year, the bourgeois and socialist bloc received 175 seats. The Social Democrats' power monopoly was broken, and they could only rule with the help of the lottery. The effects of the international oil crisis were evident in a recession that hit hard-hit Swedish base industries such as ore exports, shipyards and the iron and steel industry. In 1976, the Social Democrats lost power to a bourgeois three-party government under center leader Thorbjörn Fälldin, the first bourgeois majority government since the introduction of democracy. However, it did not bring about an immediate change of system, but the new government fought the crisis with essentially the same methods that the Social Democrats used to use. On the other hand, political interest in new issues such as co-determination, job security, gender equality, the environment and nuclear energy was postponed (compare the nuclear energy issue). The environmental issues gave rise to a new party, the Environmental Party of the Greens, which in 1988 entered the Riksdag.

Since the nuclear issue in 1978 led to the dissolution of the tripartite government, Sweden was ruled by changing bourgeois governments, until the Social Democrats under Olof Palme's leadership in 1982 regained power. Good international economic conditions during the 1980s led to a temporary improvement in Sweden's economic situation, which the government utilized for continued expansion of the public sector. Furthermore, in 1983, a decision on employee funds was enforced. Olof Palme's violent death on February 28, 1986 did not change this policy. However, some of the bourgeois opposition, inspired by neoliberal ideas, demanded a radical system change and had the opportunity to realize this when Carl BildtIn 1991, a government was formed, based on the Moderate Union Party (formerly the Right), the Center Party, the Liberal Party Liberals and the Christian Democratic Social Party. Employee funds were abolished, and measures were taken to stimulate enterprise and privatize and limit the public sector.

At the outbreak of the Cold War in 1948, Sweden initiated negotiations for a Scandinavian defense association, which, however, became unsuccessful, as Norway and later Denmark also preferred membership in NATO. Sweden then chose to go its own way according to the formula alliance freedom in peace aimed at neutrality in war. However, this policy, long personified by Foreign Minister Östen Undén, has not ruled out international involvement, including through active participation in various UN actions. After the end of the Cold War, it has emerged that Sweden was in fact cooperating closely with NATO to receive assistance in the event of a Soviet attack.

In the global world

Globalization has in many ways been the case in recent decades. Throughout the post-war period, Sweden has been an immigrant country. Large groups of workers immigrated during the good times up to about 1970 from southern and central Europe as well as Finland. Subsequently, immigration has mainly been the nature of refugee reception, first from South America, later from conflict hearings in Africa and Asia. The effects of immigration on Swedish society - both positive and negative - have become a much debated issue, as is the need for an improved integration policy.

Hostile parties were not prominent in the same way as in some other European countries for a long time, even though the immigrant-critical New Democracy had some mandates in the parliament in 1991-94. However, since the nationalist and xenophobic Sweden Democrats (SD) in the 2006 election were represented in a number of municipal councils, this party's voter support has grown tremendously. SD entered Parliament for the first time in 2010 and became the third largest party in the 2014 and 2018 elections.

In general, however, public opinion and politics have upheld the new cultural diversity; The right of ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to develop their culture was established in 2002 in the form of government. In 1999, it was also legislated that Sweden has five official national minority languages: Finnish, Tornedal Finnish (Meänkieli), Sami, Romanian (Romani Chib) and Yiddish.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union and its system of power in Eastern Europe, Sweden's international position appeared to have changed. Economic crisis symptoms helped to swing public opinion in favor of the EU. It became the Social Democratic government that came into existence after the 1994 elections under Ingvar Carlssonwhich in 1995 introduced Sweden into the EU. Sweden has since participated in a number of peacekeeping and military operations, in the Balkans and in Asia and Africa, sometimes under NATO leadership, and in official rhetoric, the doctrine no longer applies to Sweden being always neutral. However, the opinion has not been for NATO membership, and the initial very positive attitude to the EU was changed in some skepticism. In 2003, 56 per cent of voters voted against joining EMU cooperation and replacing the krona with the euro. The view of the EU has subsequently become more positive in general.

Ingvar Carlsson was succeeded in 1996 as Social Democratic leader and prime minister by Göran Persson. Both Carlsson and Persson supported the Center Party, but following a sharp decline in the 1998 parliamentary election, Persson ensured continued social democratic power holdings by entering into close cooperation with the Environment Party and the Left Party. During this time, a rigorous economic policy was pursued which brought the state budget from large deficits to balance. Prior to the 2006 election, however, the four bourgeois parties succeeded in strengthening their cooperation, under the name Alliance for Sweden (see Alliance), and moderate Fredrik Reinfeldtcould form a bourgeois majority coalition. This retained power after the 2010 election, though in a minority since the Swedish Democrats took their seats in the Riksdag.

Already the Social Democrats had, under Carlsson and Persson, pursued a policy of privatization of state activities, and this was continued by the bourgeois government. Similarly, some austerity measures regarding sickness compensation and unemployment policy have been common. Thus, if politics can be said to have had a pervasive right feel in some respects in recent years, at the same time, the bourgeois have left to the extent that they have come to accept the foundations of the Swedish welfare state and also the Swedish labor market model with strong trade union rights. Presumably, the bourgeois electoral victory in 2006 was largely conditional on the moderates presenting themselves as "the new moderates" and clearly declaring that Swedish labor law should be preserved.

Block politics greatly influenced the political landscape following the formation of the Alliance and the parties maintained it despite the fact that neither the bourgeois nor the red-green had a majority in the Riksdag since the 2010 election. With reference to this party's roots in neo-Nazi organizations, the other parties have agreed that SD should have no influence. Exceptions to this have been made in a few municipalities but not yet at national level.

The 2014 election result meant that the red-green bloc was larger than the Alliance; Social Democrat Stefan Löfven formed a coalition government together with the Environment Party, which for the first time ended up in office. In order to enable minority rule in the current parliamentary situation, in 2014, the so-called December agreement was reached. However, this was put out of play in the fall of 2015. A hitherto generous refugee policy was sharpened sharply due to the refugee crisis in 2015.

In the 2018 election, the Swedish Democrats went further, while the red-green became the largest bloc with only one mandate overweight. Löfven was deposed by the Riksdag and the formation of the government historically took a long time; twice, the president's proposal for a new prime minister was rejected (first the moderate Ulf Kristersson and then Löfven). In the choice between supporting a government with the Moderates and the Christian Democrats, which would depend on support from the Swedish Democrats as well, and introducing a new red-green government under Löfven's leadership, the Center Party and the Liberals ultimately chose the latter. A prerequisite for this, however, was an agreement on a comprehensive reform program (the January agreement) with clear liberal elements.

Historical overview

about 11000 BC Late Paleolithic reindeer hunters in southern Sweden.
about 7500 BC Mesolithic collectors and hunters populate the coastal regions of central and northern Sweden.
about 4000–2800
BC
Southern and Central Sweden are reached by agriculture in the form of funnel culture. Boxes and trenches are being erected.
about 3300 BC In southern Sweden, strong continental influences appear in the form of the battle ax culture; in Central and Northern Sweden, an Eastern influence is asserting.
about 1800 BC The Bronze Age is entering and giving rise in southern and central Sweden gradually to local as well as regional chiefdom.
about 1100–500 BC During the younger Bronze Age, Sweden is linked to Mellannorrland to the Nordic cultural sphere, while northern Norrland is integrated into the Sami.
about 500 BC The Iron Age is coming. Local iron production is mainly conducted in southern Sweden.
BC – 400 AD Strong tendencies towards social stratification and centralization occur in virtually all of Sweden.
400–550 AD The transformation of society continues, and the principality arises.
550-1000 Regional kingdoms are formed in both the Svea and Götaland landscapes. Important central locations include: Old Uppsala and Birka.
1000-1100 centuries Sweden is Christianized, and a church organization is being built.
1100-1200 centuries The royal power is consolidated.
about 1130–1222 Struggle between the Erican and Swordsmen.
1164 Uppsala becomes archbishopric.
The
latter part of the 13th century
The Swedish empire in Finland is consolidated. The National Council is established, a county organization is set up and several cities are founded.
about 1280 The privileges of worldly and spiritual salvation are confirmed.
1302-19 The battle between Birger Magnusson and his brothers ends with Magnus Eriksson being elected king and the letter of liberty being issued.
The
beginning of the 13th century
The bondage is definitely ending.
1323 Nöteborgsfreden.
about 1350 The national and city laws are added.
From 1350 Digger death is followed by the late medieval agricultural crisis.
1363-64 After a rebellion, Magnus Eriksson is deposed, and Albrekt of Mecklenburg is elected king.
1397 Union entered into between Denmark, Norway and Sweden (Kalmar Union).
1434-36 Engelbrecht uprising.
1434-1520 Recurring battles between Union kings and between different noble factions. Karl Knutsson (Bonde), as well as later national governor, lays the foundation for a national Swedish kingdom.
1520 Stockholm's blood bath.
1521 Rebellion against Christian II.
1523 Gustav Eriksson (Vaasa) is elected king.
1527 Västerås meeting breaks the bishops' power. Withdrawal of the church's property to the crown begins.
1530s Breaking with the papacy.
1542-43 Dackefejden.
1544 Sweden becomes an heirloom.
1561 Reval (Tallinn) with surrounding countryside takes place under Sweden.
1563-70 The Nordic seven-year war against Denmark, Lübeck and Poland, ended with peace in Szczecin.
1568 Rebellion against Erik XIV, who is deposed.
1570 War on Russia.
1574 Johan III's church policy initiates an approach to Catholicism.
1592 Sigismund, since 1587 king of Poland, inherits Sweden.
1593 Uppsala meeting gives Sweden a Lutheran confessional church.
1595 Peace in Teusina with Russia. Narva and all of Estonia are recognized as Swedish.
1599 Sigismund is deposited.
1611-13 The Kalmar War against Denmark, ended with the peace in Knäred.
1611 Gustav II Adolf's King Declaration.
1617 The peace in Stolbova ends Sweden's involvement in the Russian throne struggle. Kexholm County and Ingermanland become Swedish.
1617-29 Conflict with Poland. At the standstill in Altmark in 1629, Poland acknowledges Livland as Swedish and gives Sweden ports at the mouths of Wisła and Nemuna for six years.
1630 Sweden intervenes in the Thirty Years War.
1632 Gustav II Adolf falls in the battle of Lützen.
1634 Government form on the guardianship board and administration.
1643-45 War with Denmark, ended with peace in Brömsebro, which gives Sweden Halland of 30 years, Gotland, Ösel, Jämtland and Härjedalen.
1648 Westphalian peace gives Sweden Vorpommern, Wismar and Bremen-Verden.
1650 Parliament with great contradictions between the nobility and the nobility.
1654 Kristina abdicates, and Karl X Gustav becomes king.
1655 Partial reduction is decided. War against Poland.
1656 Russia attacks Sweden.
1657 Denmark declares war.
1658 The train over the Belt and the peace in Roskilde, which gives Sweden Skåne, Bornholm, Blekinge, Halland, Bohuslän and Trondheim counties.
1660 Bornholm and Trondheim counties back to Denmark.
1674 Sweden, from 1672 in association with France, is engaged in war against Brandenburg.
1675 Denmark and the Netherlands declare war.
1679 Frederna in Lund, Saint Germain and Celle.
1680 Decisions on reduction and guardianship. The Carolinian monarchy begins to take shape.
1686 New church team.
1700 Russia, Denmark and Saxony attack Sweden and Holstein – Gottorp and start the Great Nordic War.
1706 The peace in Altranstädt seals August the strong defeat.
1709 The Battle of Poltava and the Swedish Army surrender at Perevolotjna. Denmark declares war.
1718 Karl XII falls at Fredriksten.
1719 One empire is abolished. The freedom period begins.
1721 Peace in Nystad. The Baltic provinces resign to Russia.
1723 New parliamentary agenda.
1738 Arvid Horn is leaving, the hats are taking power.
1741-43 War against Russia, south-eastern Finland is canceled.
1743 The valley rebellion ("the big valley dance").
1757 The big shift statute gas.
1757-62 War against Prussia (Pomeranian War).
1765 Younger caps take power.
1766 Freedom of expression and the principle of publicity are constitutionally protected.
1772 Gustav III's coup d'état ends the freedom period.
1788-90 War on Russia.
1789 The Association and Security Act.
1792 Gustav III is murdered.
1808-09 War on Russia. Finland resigns in peace in Fredrikshamn.
1809 Gustav IV Adolf is deposed. New constitution based on power sharing.
1810 French marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte is elected Swedish successor to the throne.
1814 Sweden and Norway form a union.
1827 A statute of legal change is issued, which in the long run leads to the dissolution of the villages.
1830 Lars Johan Hierta founded Aftonbladet as a body for the liberal opposition.
1841 Liberal breakthrough at 1840-41 years of parliament.
1842 The public school charter is issued.
1846 The oblique being abolished.
1853 Pedigrees begin to be built throughout the country.
1862 New municipal laws.
1864 Nutrition is introduced.
1865-66 Representative reform: the parliamentary day is replaced by a two-chambered kingdom day.
1876 The Prime Minister's Office is set up.
1889 The Social Democratic Party is founded.
1905 The Swedish-Norwegian Union is dissolved.
1907 All adult men have the right to vote for the second chamber.
1909 The general strike.
1914 The farmer train and the courtyard crisis.
1917 The breakthrough of parliamentaryism.
1918-21 Democratic breakthrough: universal and equal suffrage for women and men.
1932 Per Albin Hansson forms government and initiates a long hold of social democratic power.
1933 The crisis settlement between the Social Democrats and the Peasant League.
1938 The Saltsjöbads agreement lays the foundation for long-term work peace.
1939-45 Sweden manages to stay neutral in World War II. Coalition Government.
1949 Sweden chooses the path of alliance freedom in the Cold War.
1959 General occupational pension decision.
1974 New form of government with single-chamber system and constitutional parliamentaryism.
1986 Olof Palme is murdered.
1995 Following the referendum (1994), Sweden joins the European Union.
2003 Sweden votes against being part of EMU.
2006 The bourgeois alliance wins the election.
2014 The Social Democrats form government together with the Environment Party.
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