The lack of a plan for the holding of elections and
agitation among the university students demanding more
resources gave rise to further social unrest. The president
responded again by closing the university, canceling
elections and banning political meetings. The opposition
called for a general strike that paralyzed Port Gentil, the
center of the oil industry. Bongo was intimidated by the
scale of the protests, reopened the university and lifted
the ban on demonstrations.
In foreign policy, Gabon played a role as a mediator in
regional conflicts - ia. the border dispute between Libya
and Chad. Still, some of the government's actions triggered
diplomatic rubbish. In October 1992, Gabon declared, among
other things, that it would expel 10,000 Nigerians who
stayed in the country "in an irregular way". See abbreviationfinder for geography, history, society, politics, and economy of Gabon.
In December 1993, presidential elections, which Bongo
once again won, were held despite criticism from the
opposition of irregularities. In February, new riots
erupted, costing 30 people. From September to December 1994
negotiations were held in Paris, leading to the formation of
a unifying government until the holding of free elections.
In a July 1995 referendum, the president got 96% of the
vote for a constitutional reform that would govern the
conduct of presidential and parliamentary elections. In the
election to the National Assembly in December 1996, Bongo's
party got PDG 47 out of the 55 seats. In contrast, the
opposition leader, Paul Mba-Abessole, won the municipal
election and became mayor of the capital Libreville.
Due. oil export revenues are the country's annual average
revenue per year. $ 3,490. Still, the poverty indicators are
alarming. In 1997, the average lifespan was only 55 years,
37% of the population was illiterate and the child mortality
rate was 87 ‰.
In early 1998, the capital's mayor, Mba-Abessole, asked
the UN to oversee the planned presidential election that
year to "prevent the unlawful re-election of Omar Bongo." As
expected, the president won over Mba-Abessole and his ally
The president appointed Jean-François Ntoutoume Emane to
the post of prime minister from January 1999. But at the
same time fierce protests were taking place in the country,
causing the government to shut down the schools and the
University of Libreville.
The authorities asked for humanitarian aid from the UN
because of the constant flow of refugees into the country.
In October 1999, the UN estimated that there were 10,000
refugees in the country.
In July 2000, a cargo ship from Greece and one from
France collided in Gabon's territorial waters, and 400
tonnes of oil ran into the sea. Bongo requested
international aid to cover the cost of the clean-up, which
amounted to DKK 1.5 million. US $.
Like other countries in Central and West Africa, Gabon is
involved in the trafficking of children who come mainly from
Nigeria. The children sold in Nigeria work on plantations,
in homes, in prostitution, or are sent out as street
sweepers. It is envisaged that Gabon and 3 neighboring
countries will sign an agreement on child trafficking in
2004, and after the conclusion of the agreement, the
children will be sent to their home countries.