The Azerbaijani population is a conglomerate, a secular
fusion of the ancient peoples of the East Caucasus. In the
area we know today as Azerbadjan originated in the 9th
century BCE the states of Mana, Caucasian Albania and
Atropotena - from the latter the name Azerbadjan is derived.
General Atropates proclaimed the independence of this
province in the year 328 BCE, when Persia was conquered by
Alexander the Great. See
abbreviationfinder for geography, history, society, politics, and economy of Azerbaijan.
Later, these states were incorporated into Asian and
later Sasanian Persia. It came to anti-Sasanian insurgency,
such as the revolt of the mazdokites. In the year 642, the
Arab caliphates conquered Azerbadjan, which was still an
area inhabited by various ethnic tribes. The Arabs gathered
the land under Islam, i.e. the Shiite edition, however,
under some resistance. During the period 1816-37, an
anti-Arab uprising led by Babek arose.
From the 8th to the 10th centuries, Azerbadjan was passed
by an important trade route linking the Near East and
Eastern Europe. From the 9th to the 14th centuries, the
Turks occupied Transcaucasia and northern Persia. All
peoples of the area took over Turkish as a spoken language,
and during this period, from the 11th to the 13th centuries,
the Azerbaijani people formed ethnic identity. The Sirván
region, north of Azerbaijan, was declared an independent
state between the 15th and 16th centuries.
In the transition from 15-16. century the state of the
Setévids emerged. The founder of the dynasty, Shah Ismael of
the 1st, received help from the nomadic Azerbaijani tribes,
which evolved to become the primary power factor of the
state. At the end of the 16th century, the Azerbaijani
nobles transferred their territories to the Iranians.
Eastern Transcaucasia became the scene of the Iran-Turkey
rivalry between the 16th and 17th centuries. In the early
18th century, Azerbadjan began to become interesting to the
Russian Empire. In the middle of the century, there were
more than 15 Azerbaijan khanates, kings who depended on
Iran. After several wars between Russia on the one hand and
alternately Turkey and Persia on the other, the peace treaty
was signed both in Gulistán, 1813 and partly in Turkmenchai,
1828. According to these agreements, northern Azerbaijan was
annexed by Russia; these were the provinces of Bakú and
Yelisavétpol; the latter is today called Guiandzhá.
The agricultural reform introduced in Russia in 1870
accelerated capitalist development in Azerbaijan, and the
region's oil wealth served as an incentive to further
accelerate this development. After the Russian revolution in
1905, in Bakú, in 1911, the bourgeois nationalist party
Musevat, which means Equality, was founded with pantyric and
pamislamic tendencies. Following the triumph of the
Bolsheviks in October 1917, the Soviet power was introduced
into Azerbaijan by the Bakú municipality.
The Turkish-English intervention, which took place in the
summer of 1918, disposed of the Bakú municipality and
brought the Musavites to power. The Red Army captured Bakú
in April 1920, and introduced the Soviet system throughout
Azerbaijan, which was proclaimed Socialist Soviet Republic,
which later in March 1922 was incorporated into the
Federation of Socialist Soviet Republics in Transcaucasia,
together with Armenia and Georgia.
In the early 1920s, in an effort to resolve internal
ethnic conflicts, Moscow decided to incorporate Nagorny
Karabakh and Najichevan into Azerbaijan; these two areas had
otherwise belonged to Armenia. In July 1923, the Autonomous
Region of Nagorny Karabakh was formed and in February 1924
the Autonomous Republic of Najichevan, both members of the
Socialist Soviet Republic of Azerbadjan, was formed. In
December 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation disbanded and
the Soviet Republic of Azerbadjan was separately
incorporated into the Soviet Union. In 1929, an attempt was
made to replace the Azerbaijani language using Arabic
characters with the Latin alphabet. In January 1940, the
alphabet with Russian letters was introduced.